Biography Philanthropists

Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
President of Rssia
Assumed office
7 May 2012
Prime Minister Viktor Zubkov (Acting)
Dmitry Medvedev
Preceded by Dmitry Medvedev
In office
7 May 2000 – 7 May 2008
Acting: 31 December 1999 – 7 May 2000
Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov
Viktor Khristenko (Acting)
Mikhail Fradkov
Viktor Zubkov
Preceded by Boris Yeltsin
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
33rd Prime Minister of Russia
In office
8 May 2008 – 7 May 2012
President Dmitry Medvedev
First Deputy Sergei Ivanov
Viktor Zubkov
Igor Shuvalov
Preceded by Viktor Zubkov
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
In office
16 August 1999 – 7 May 2000
Acting: 9 August 1999 – 16 August 1999
President Boris Yeltsin
First Deputy Nikolai Aksyonenko
Viktor Khristenko
Mikhail Kasyanov
Preceded by Sergei Stepashin
Succeeded by Mikhail Kasyanov
Leader of All-Russia People’s Front
Assumed office
12 June 2013
Preceded by Office established
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union State of Russia and Belarus
In office
27 May 2008 – 18 July 2012
General Secretary Pavel Borodin
Preceded by Viktor Zubkov
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
Leader of United Russia
In office
7 May 2008 – 26 May 2012
Preceded by Boris Gryzlov
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
In office
9 August 1999 – 16 August 1999
President Boris Yeltsin
Preceded by Viktor Khristenko
Succeeded by Mikhail Kasyanov
Secretary of the Security Council
In office
9 March 1999 – 9 August 1999
Preceded by Nikolay Bordyuzha
Succeeded by Sergei Ivanov
Director of the Federal Security Service
In office
25 July 1998 – 29 March 1999
Preceded by Nikolay Kovalyov
Succeeded by Nikolai Patrushev
Personal details
Born Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
7 October 1952 (age 65)
LeningradRussian SFSRSoviet Union
Political party All-Russia People’s Front(2011–present)
Independent (1991–95; 2001–08; 2012–present)
Other political
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1975–91)
Our Home – Russia(1995–99)
Unity (1999–2001)
United Russia (2008–2012)[1]
Lyudmila Putina
(m. 1983div. 2014)
Residence Novo-OgaryovoMoscow, Russia
Alma mater Saint Petersburg State University
Awards Order of Honor of the Russian Federation Order of Honour
Website Official website
Military service
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch KGB
Years of service 1975–1991
Rank 1980п-кгб.png Colonel of the KGB[2]
Действительный государственный советник РФ 1 класса (Генерал армии)г.png Actual state adviser of the Russian Federation 1 class

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈptɪn/RussianВлади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тинIPA: [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn] (About this sound listen); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.[3][4][5] He was Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 until the beginning of his first presidency in 2000, and again between presidencies from 2008 until 2012.[6] During his first term as Prime Minister, he served as Acting President of Russia due to the resignation of President Boris Yeltsin.[7] During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the chairman of the ruling United Russia party.[3]

Putin was born in Leningrad in the Soviet Union. He studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975.[8] Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin‘s administration, rising quickly through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. Putin won the 2000 presidential election by a 53% to 30% margin, thus avoiding a runoff with his Communist Party of the Russian Federation opponent, Gennady Zyuganov.[9] He was reelected president in 2004 with 72% of the vote. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, and GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%.[10][11] The growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, and prudent economic and fiscal policies.[12][13]Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third consecutive presidential term in 2008. The 2008 presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin as Prime Minister, the beginning of what some opponents considered to be a period of “tandemocracy“.[14]

In September 2011, after presidential terms were extended from four to six years,[15] Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote, a result which aligned with pre-election polling.[16] Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia’s annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and is officially out of the recession.[17][18][19][20]Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024.[21]

Under Putin’s leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit‘s Democracy Index and Freedom House‘s Freedom in the World index (including a record low 20/100 rating in the 2017 Freedom in the World report, a rating not given since the time of the Soviet Union). Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections, purges and jailing of opponents, and curtailed press freedom.[22][23][24][25][26] Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated; he has rejected accusations of human rights abuses.[27] Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U.S. presidential election in 2016, which both Trump and Putin have frequently denied and criticized.[28][29][30]

Early life

Putin’s parents, Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina (née Shelomova)

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in LeningradRussian SFSRSoviet Union (now Saint Petersburg),[31][32] the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (1911–1999) and Maria Ivanovna Putina (née Shelomova; 1911–1998). His birth was preceded by the death of two brothers, Viktor and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II.[33] Putin’s mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD.[34][35][36] Later, he was transferred to the regular army and was severely wounded in 1942.[37] Putin’s maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, and his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.[38]

On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No. 193 at Baskov Lane, near his home. He was one of a few in the class of approximately 45 pupils who was not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice sambo and judo. He is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema.[39] Putin studied German at Saint Petersburg High School 281 and speaks German fluently.[40][41]

Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University (now Saint Petersburg State University) in 1970 and graduated in 1975.[8] His thesis was on “The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law”.[42] While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991.[43] Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law (khozyaystvennoye pravo), and who would be influential in Putin’s career.[44]

KGB career

Putin in KGB uniform, circa 1980

In 1975, Putin joined the KGB and trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad.[31][45] After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate (counter-intelligence), before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.[31][46][47] From 1985 to 1990, he served in DresdenEast Germany,[48] using a cover identity as a translator.[49] Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, “Putin and his colleagues were reduced mainly to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB.”[49] According to Putin’s official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wallthat began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them.[50]

After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov.[47] There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, and renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.[51] Putin claims that he resigned with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel on 20 August 1991,[51] on the second day of the 1991 Soviet coup d’état attemptagainst the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.[52] Putin said: “As soon as the coup began, I immediately decided which side I was on”, although he also noted that the choice was hard because he had spent the best part of his life with “the organs”.[53]

In 1999, Putin described communism as “a blind alley, far away from the mainstream of civilization”.[54]

Political career

1990–1996: Saint Petersburg administration

Vladimir Putin, Lyudmila Narusovaand Ksenia Sobchak at the funeral of Putin’s former mentor[55] Anatoly Sobchak, Mayor of Saint Petersburg (1990–1996).

In May 1990, Putin was appointed as an advisor on international affairs to the Mayor of Leningrad Anatoly Sobchak. On 28 June 1991, he became head of the Committee for External Relations of the Mayor’s Office, with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments[56]and registering business ventures. Within a year, Putin was investigated by the city legislative council led by Marina Salye. It was concluded that he had understated prices and permitted the export of metals valued at $93 million in exchange for foreign food aid that never arrived.[57][58] Despite the investigators’ recommendation that Putin be fired, Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996.[59][60] From 1994 to 1996, he held several other political and governmental positions in Saint Petersburg.[61]

In March 1994, Putin was appointed as First Deputy Chairman of the Government of Saint Petersburg. In May 1995, he organized the Saint Petersburg branch of the pro-government Our Home – Russia political party, the liberal party of power founded by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. In 1995, he managed the legislative election campaign for that party, and from 1995 through June 1997, he was the leader of its Saint Petersburg branch.[61]

1996–1999: Early Moscow career

Putin as FSB director, 1998

In June 1996 Sobchak lost his bid for reelection in Saint Petersburg, so Putin moved to Moscow and was appointed as Deputy Chief of the Presidential Property Management Department headed by Pavel Borodin. He occupied this position until March 1997. During his tenure, Putin was responsible for the foreign property of the state and organized the transfer of the former assets of the Soviet Union and Communist Party to the Russian Federation.[44]

On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of Presidential Staff, which he remained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). His predecessor on this position was Alexei Kudrin and the successor was Nikolai Patrushev, both future prominent politicians and Putin’s associates.[44]

On 27 June 1997, at the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute, guided by rector Vladimir Litvinenko, Putin defended his Candidate of Science dissertation in economics, titled “The Strategic Planning of Regional Resources Under the Formation of Market Relations”.[62] This exemplified the custom in Russia for a rising young official to write a scholarly work in mid-career.[63] When Putin later became president, the dissertation became a target of plagiarism accusations by fellows at the Brookings Institution; although the dissertation was referenced,[64][65] the Brookings fellows asserted that it constituted plagiarism albeit perhaps unintentional.[64]The dissertation committee denied the accusations.[65][66]

On 25 May 1998, Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of Presidential Staff for regions, replacing Viktoriya Mitina; and, on 15 July, he was appointed head of the commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of power of regions and the federal center attached to the president, replacing Sergey Shakhray. After Putin’s appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray’s term as the Head of the Commission 46 agreements were signed.[67] Later, after becoming president, Putin canceled all those agreements.[44]

On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Putin as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the primary intelligence and security organization of the Russian Federation and the successor to the KGB.[68]

1999: First premiership

On 9 August 1999, Putin was appointed one of three First Deputy Prime Ministers, and later on that day, was appointed acting Prime Minister of the Government of the Russian Federation by President Yeltsin.[69] Yeltsin also announced that he wanted to see Putin as his successor. Later on that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency.[70]

On 16 August, the State Duma approved his appointment as Prime Minister with 233 votes in favor (vs. 84 against, 17 abstained),[71] while a simple majority of 226 was required, making him Russia’s fifth PM in fewer than eighteen months. On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors. He was initially regarded as a Yeltsin loyalist; like other prime ministers of Boris Yeltsin, Putin did not choose ministers himself, his cabinet was determined by the presidential administration.[72]

Yeltsin’s main opponents and would-be successors were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin’s emergence as a potential successor. Putin’s law-and-order image and his unrelenting approach to the Second Chechen War against the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, soon combined to raise Putin’s popularity and allowed him to overtake all rivals.

While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party,[73] which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote (23.3%) in the December 1999 Duma elections, and in turn he was supported by it.

1999–2000: Acting presidency

Putin in 1999

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned and, according to the Constitution of Russia, Putin became Acting President of the Russian Federation. On assuming this role, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya.[74]

The first Presidential Decree that Putin signed, on 31 December 1999, was titled “On guarantees for former president of the Russian Federation and members of his family”.[75][76] This ensured that “corruption charges against the outgoing President and his relatives” would not be pursued.[77] This was most notably targeted at Mabetex bribery case in which Yeltsin’s family members were involved. On 30 August 2000, a criminal investigation (number 18/238278-95) was dropped in which Putin himself was one of the suspects[78][79] as a member of the Saint Petersburg city government. On 30 December 2000, yet another case against the prosecutor general was dropped “for lack of evidence”, in spite of thousands of documents passed by Swiss prosecution.[80] On 12 February 2001, Putin signed a similar federal law which replaced the decree of 1999. The case of Putin’s alleged corruption in metal exports from 1992 was brought back by Marina Salye, but she was silenced and forced to leave Saint Petersburg.[81]

While his opponents had been preparing for an election in June 2000, Yeltsin’s resignation resulted in the Presidential elections being held within three months, on 26 March 2000; Putin won in the first round with 53% of the vote.[82]

2000–2004: First presidential term

Putin taking presidential oath beside Boris Yeltsin, May 2000

The inauguration of President Putin occurred on 7 May 2000. Putin appointed the Minister of FinanceMikhail Kasyanov, as the Prime Minister.

Putin addressing United Nations General Assembly during Millennium Summit, September 2000

The first major challenge to Putin’s popularity came in August 2000, when he was criticized for the alleged mishandling of the Kursk submarine disaster.[83] That criticism was largely because it was several days before Putin returned from vacation, and several more before he visited the scene.[83]

Between 2000 and 2004, Putin set about the reconstruction of the impoverished condition of the country, apparently winning a power-struggle with the Russian oligarchs, reaching a ‘grand bargain’ with them. This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain most of their powers, in exchange for their explicit support for—and alignment with—Putin’s government.[84][85] A new group of business magnates emerged, including Gennady TimchenkoVladimir YakuninYury Kovalchuk, and Sergey Chemezov, with close personal ties to Putin.

A few months before elections, Putin fired Prime Minister Kasyanov’s cabinet, and appointed Mikhail Fradkov to his place. Sergey Ivanov became the first civilian in Russia to be appointed to the Defense Minister position.

In 2003, a referendum was held in Chechnya, adopting a new constitution which declares that the Republic of Chechnya is a part of Russia; on the other hand, the region did acquire autonomy.[86] Chechnya has been gradually stabilized with the establishment of the Parliamentary elections and a Regional Government.[87][88] Throughout the Second Chechen War, Russia severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement; however, sporadic attacks by rebels continued to occur throughout the northern Caucasus.[89]

2004–2008: Second presidential term

Vladimir Putin with Junichiro KoizumiJacques ChiracGerhard SchröderSilvio BerlusconiGeorge W. Bush and other state leaders in Moscow, 9 May 2005[90][91][92]

On 14 March 2004, Putin was elected to the presidency for a second term, receiving 71% of the vote.[82] The Beslan school hostage crisis took place in September 2004, in which hundreds died. Many in the Russian press and in the international media warned that the death of 130 hostages in the special forces’ rescue operation during the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis would severely damage President Putin’s popularity. However, shortly after the siege had ended, the Russian president enjoyed record public approval ratings – 83% of Russians declared themselves satisfied with Putin and his handling of the siege.[93]

The near 10-year period prior to the rise of Putin after the dissolution of Soviet rule was a time of upheaval in Russia.[94] In a 2005 Kremlin speech, Putin characterized the collapse of the Soviet Union as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the Twentieth Century.”[95] Putin elaborated “Moreover, the epidemic of disintegration infected Russia itself.”[96] The country’s cradle-to-grave social safety net was gone and life expectancy declined in the period preceding Putin’s rule.[97] In 2005, the National Priority Projects were launched to improve Russia’s health careeducationhousing and agriculture.[98][99]

Putin with Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel in March 2008

The continued criminal prosecution of Russia’s then richest man, President of Yukos oil and gas company Mikhail Khodorkovsky, for fraud and tax evasion was seen by the international press as a retaliation for Khodorkovsky’s donations to both liberal and communist opponents of the Kremlin.[citation needed] The government said that Khodorkovsky was “corrupting” a large segment of the Duma to prevent changes to the tax code.[citation needed] Khodorkovsky was arrested, Yukos was bankrupted and the company’s assets were auctioned at below-market value, with the largest share acquired by the state company Rosneft.[100] The fate of Yukos was seen as a sign of a broader shift of Russia towards a system of state capitalism.[101][102] This was underscored in July 2014 when shareholders of Yukos were awarded $50  billion in compensation by the Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague.[103]

On 7 October 2006, Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who exposed corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya, was shot in the lobby of her apartment building, on Putin’s birthday. The death of Politkovskaya triggered international criticism, with accusations that Putin has failed to protect the country’s new independent media.[104][105] Putin himself said that her death caused the government more problems than her writings.[106]

In 2007, “Dissenters’ Marches” were organized by the opposition group The Other Russia,[107] led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov. Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as 150 people who attempted to break through police lines.[108]

On 12 September 2007, Putin dissolved the government upon the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a “free hand” in the run-up to the parliamentary election. Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister.[109]

In December 2007, United Russia won 64.24% of the popular vote in their run for State Duma according to election preliminary results.[110] United Russia’s victory in the December 2007 elections was seen by many as an indication of strong popular support of the then Russian leadership and its policies.[111][112]

2008–2012: Second premiership

Putin was barred from a third term by the Constitution. First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev was elected his successor. In a power-switching operation on 8 May 2008, only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, maintaining his political dominance.[113]

Putin with Dmitry Medvedev, March 2008

Putin has said that overcoming the consequences of the world economic crisis was one of the two main achievements of his second Premiership.[99] The other was the stabilizing the size of Russia’s population between 2008 and 2011 following a long period of demographic collapse that began in the 1990s.[99]

At the United Russia Congress in Moscow on 24 September 2011, Medvedev officially proposed that Putin stand for the Presidency in 2012, an offer Putin accepted. Given United Russia’s near-total dominance of Russian politics, many observers believed that Putin was assured of a third term. The move was expected to see Medvedev stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December, with a goal of becoming Prime Minister at the end of his presidential term.[114]

After the parliamentary elections on 4 December 2011, tens of thousands of Russians engaged in protests against alleged electoral fraud, the largest protests in Putin’s time. Protesters criticized Putin and United Russia and demanded annulment of the election results.[115] Those protests sparked the fear of a colour revolution in society.[116][117][118] Putin allegedly organized a number of paramilitary groups loyal to himself and to the United Russia party in the period between 2005 and 2012.[119]

2012–2018: Third presidential term

On 24 September 2011, while speaking at the United Russia party congress, Medvedev announced that he would recommend the party nominate Putin as its presidential candidate. He also revealed that the two men had long ago cut a deal to allow Putin to run for president in 2012.[120] This switch was termed by many in the media as “Rokirovka”, the Russian term for the chess move “castling“. Medvedev said he himself would be ready to perform “practical work in the government”.[121]

On 4 March 2012, Putin won the 2012 Russian presidential elections in the first round, with 63.6% of the vote, despite widespread accusations of vote-rigging.[82][122][123] Opposition groups accused Putin and the United Russia party of fraud.[124][125] While efforts to make the elections transparent were publicized, including the usage of webcams in polling stations, the vote was criticized by the Russian opposition and by international observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for procedural irregularities.[126]

Anti-Putin protesters march in Moscow, 4 February 2012

Anti-Putin protests took place during and directly after the presidential campaign. The most notorious protest was the Pussy Riot performance on 21 February, and subsequent trial.[127] An estimated 8,000–20,000 protesters gathered in Moscow on 6 May,[128][129] when eighty people were injured in confrontations with police,[130] and 450 were arrested, with another 120 arrests taking place the following day.[131] A counter-protest of Putin supporters occurred which culminated in a gathering of an estimated 130,000 supporters at the Luzhniki Stadium, Russia’s largest stadium. Some of the attendees stated that they had been paid to come, were forced to come by their employers, or were misled into believing that they were going to attend a folk festival instead.[132][133][134][135] The rally is considered to be the largest in support of Putin to date.[136]

Putin’s presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.[137] On his first day as president, Putin issued 14 Presidential decrees, which are sometimes called the “May Decrees” by the media, including a lengthy one stating wide-ranging goals for the Russian economy. Other decrees concerned education, housing, skilled labor training, relations with the European Union, the defense industry, inter-ethnic relations, and other policy areas dealt with in Putin’s program articles issued during the presidential campaign.[138]

In 2012 and 2013, Putin and the United Russia party backed stricter legislation against the LGBT community, in Saint PetersburgArchangelsk and Novosibirsk; a law called the Russian gay propaganda law, that is against “homosexual propaganda” (which prohibits such symbols as the rainbow flag as well as published works containing homosexual content) was adopted by the State Duma in June 2013.[139][140][141][142] Responding to international concerns about Russia’s legislation, Putin asked critics to note that the law was a “ban on the propaganda of pedophilia and homosexuality” and he stated that homosexual visitors to the 2014 Winter Olympics should “leave the children in peace” but denied there was any “professional, career or social discrimination” against homosexuals in Russia.[143]

In June 2013, Putin attended a televised rally of the All-Russia People’s Front where he was elected head of the movement,[144] which was set up in 2011.[145] According to journalist Steve Rosenberg, the movement is intended to “reconnect the Kremlin to the Russian people” and one day, if necessary, replace the increasingly unpopular United Russia party that currently backs Putin.[146]

Intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea

Putin, with St. George ribbon, greets local residents during a visit to the Crimean city of Sevastopol on 9 May 2014

In 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory. After Euromaidan protests and the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor YanukovychRussian soldiers without insignias took control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Russia then annexed Crimeaafter a disputed referendum in which Crimeans voted to join the Russian Federation, according to official results.[147][148][149] Subsequently, demonstrations by pro-Russian groups in the Donbass area of Ukraine escalated into an armed conflict between the Ukrainian government and the Russia-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Lugansk People’s Republics. In August, Russian military vehicles crossed the border in several locations of Donetsk Oblast.[150][151][152][153] The incursion by the Russian military was seen as responsible for the defeat of Ukrainian forces in early September.[154][155]

Putin in talks with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President François Hollande, 17 October 2014

In November 2014, the Ukrainian military reported intensive movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist controlled parts of eastern Ukraine.[156] The Associated Press reported 80 unmarked military vehicles on the move in rebel-controlled areas.[157] An OSCE Special Monitoring Mission observed convoys of heavy weapons and tanks in DPR-controlled territory without insignia.[158] OSCE monitors further stated they observed vehicles transporting ammunition and soldiers’ dead bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border under the guise of humanitarian aid convoys.[159] As of early August 2015, OSCE observed over 21 such vehicles marked with the Russian military code for soldiers killed in action.[160] According to The Moscow Times, Russia has tried to intimidate and silence human rights workers discussing Russian soldiers’ deaths in the conflict.[161] OSCE repeatedly reported that its observers were denied access to the areas controlled by “combined Russian-separatist forces”.[162]

The majority of members of the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International have condemned Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty. Many countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia, Russian individuals or companies – to which Russia responded in kind.

Putin and Turkish President Erdoğan attend Moscow’s Cathedral Mosque opening ceremony, 23 September 2015

In October 2015, The Washington Post reported that Russia has redeployed some of its elite units from Ukraine to Syria in recent weeks to support Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.[163] In December 2015, Russian Federation President Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine.[164]

Many members of the international community assumed that Putin’s annexation of Crimea initiated the start of a completely new kind of foreign policy from Russia.[165] They took the annexation of Crimea to mean that his foreign policy shifted “from state-driven foreign policy” to taking an offensive stance to re-create the Soviet Union.[165] However, this policy shift can be understood as Putin trying to defend nations in Russia’s sphere of influence from encroaching western power. While the act to annex the Crimea was bold and drastic, his “new” foreign policy may have more similarities to his older policies.[165]

Intervention in Syria

On 30 September 2015, President Putin authorized Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, following a formal request by the Syrian government for military help against rebel and jihadist groups.[166]

The Russian military activities consisted of air strikes, cruise missile strikes and the use of front line advisors and Russian special forces against militant groups opposed to the Syrian government, including the Syrian opposition, as well as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), Tahrir al-ShamAhrar al-Sham and the Army of Conquest.[167][168]After Putin’s announcement on 14 March 2016 that the mission he had set for the Russian military in Syria had been “largely accomplished” and ordered the withdrawal of the “main part” of the Russian forces from Syria,[169] Russian forces deployed in Syria continued to actively operate in support of the Syrian government.[170]

Russia’s interference in the US election

At a conference in St. Petersburg, NBC’s Megyn Kelly repeatedly questioned Putin about alleged Russian cyberattacks.[171]

In January 2017, a U.S. intelligence community assessment expressed “high confidence” that Putin personally ordered an “influence campaign” to denigrate Hillary Clinton and to harm her electoral chances and potential presidency.[172] Putin has consistently denied any Russian interference in the U.S. election.[173][174][175][176][177][178]

2018–present: Fourth presidential term

Putin won the 2018 presidential election with more than 76% of the vote.[179] His fourth term began in May 2018.[180]

7 May 2018, Vladimir Putin for the fourth time took office as President of Russia. On this day, Putin invited Dmitry Medvedev to form a new government. On 15 May 2018, Vladimir Putin took part in the opening of the movement along the highway section of the Crimean bridge. On 18 May 2018, Vladimir Putin signed decrees on the composition of the new Government. On 25 May 2018, Putin announced that he would not run for president in 2024, justifying this in compliance with the Russian Constitution. On a straight line on 7 June 2018, he told about his future successor. On 14 June 2018, opened as the head of the country-organizer of the XXI World Cup, which took place in Russia for the first time.

Domestic policies

Putin’s domestic policies, especially early in his first presidency, were aimed at creating a vertical power structure. On 13 May 2000, he issued a decree putting the 89 federal subjects of Russiainto seven administrative federal districts and appointed a presidential envoy responsible for each of those districts (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative).[181]

On 13 May 2000, Putin introduced seven federal districts for administrative purposes. On 19 January 2010, the 8th North Caucasus Federal District (shown here in purple) was split from Southern Federal District. On 21 March 2014, the new 9th Crimean Federal District was formed after the annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol by the Russian Federation, but on 28 July 2016 it was incorporated into Southern Federal District.

According to Stephen White, Russia under the presidency of Putin made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a “second edition” of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia’s own traditions and circumstances.[182] Some commentators have described Putin’s administration as a “sovereign democracy“.[183][184][185]

According to the proponents of that description, the government’s actions and policies ought above all to enjoy popular support within Russia itself and not be determined from outside the country.[186]

In July 2000, according to a law proposed by Putin and approved by the Federal Assembly of Russia, Putin gained the right to dismiss heads of the 89 federal subjects. In 2004, the direct election of those heads (usually called “governors”) by popular vote was replaced with a system whereby they would be nominated by the president and approved or disapproved by regional legislatures.[187][188] This was seen by Putin as a necessary move to stop separatist tendencies and get rid of those governors who were connected with organised crime.[189] This and other government actions effected under Putin’s presidency have been criticised by many independent Russian media outlets and Western commentators as anti-democratic.[190][191] In 2012, as proposed by Putin’s successor, Dmitry Medvedev, the direct election of governors was re-introduced.[192]

During his first term in office, Putin opposed some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs, as well as his political opponents, resulting in the exile or imprisonment of such people as Boris BerezovskyVladimir Gusinsky, and Mikhail Khodorkovsky; other oligarchs such as Roman Abramovich and Arkady Rotenberg are friends and allies with Putin.[193]

Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labor, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law.[194]Under Medvedev’s presidency, Putin’s government implemented some key reforms in the area of state security, the Russian police reform and the Russian military reform.

Economic, industrial, and energy policies

Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union

Historical crude oil prices. Economic growth in Putin’s first two terms was fueled by the 2000s commodities boom, including high oil prices[12][13]

Fueled by the 2000s commodities boom including record high oil prices,[12][13] under the Putin administration from 2001 to 2007, the economy made real gains of an average 7% per year,[195] making it the 7th largest economy in the world in purchasing power. In 2007, Russia’s GDP exceeded that of Russian SFSR in 1990, having recovered from the 1998 financial crisis and the preceding recession in the 1990s.[196]

During Putin’s first eight years in office, industry grew substantially, as did production, construction, real incomes, credit, and the middle class.[196][197][198]Putin has also been praised for eliminating widespread barter and thus boosting the economy.[199] Inflation remained a problem however.[196]

A fund for oil revenue allowed Russia to repay all of the Soviet Union’s debts by 2005.[196] Russia joined the World Trade Organization on 22 August 2012.

Under Putin, Russia is a major exporter of oil and gas to much of Europe

Control over the economy was increased by placing individuals from the intelligence services and the military in key positions of the Russian economy, including on boards of large companies. In 2005, an industry consolidation programme was launched to bring the main aircraft producing companies under a single umbrella organization, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). The aim was to optimize production lines and minimise losses.[200] The UAC is one of Russia’s “national champions” and comparable to EADS in Europe.[201]

A programme was started to increase Russia’s share of the European energy market by building submerged gas pipelines bypassing Ukraine and other countries which were often seen as non-reliable transit partners by Russia, especially following Russia-Ukraine gas disputes of the late 2000s (decade). Russia also undermined the rival pipeline project Nabucco by buying the Turkmen gas and redirecting it into Russian pipelines.

Russia diversified its export markets by building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline to the markets of China, Japan and Korea, as well as the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok gas pipeline in the Russian Far East. Russia has also recently built several major oil and gas refineries, plants and ports. There was also construction of major hydropower plants, such as the Bureya Dam and the Boguchany Dam, as well as the restoration of the nuclear industry of Russia, with 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) which were allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[202] A large number of nuclear power stations and units are currently being constructed by the state corporation Rosatom in Russia and abroad.

On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal

A construction program of floating nuclear power plants will provide power to Russian Arctic coastal cities and gas rigs, starting in 2012.[203][204] The Arctic policy of Russia also includes an offshore oilfield in the Pechora Sea which is expected to start producing in early 2012, with the world’s first ice-resistant oil platform and first offshore Arctic platform.[205] In August 2011 Rosneft, a Russian government-operated oil company, signed a deal with ExxonMobil for Arctic oil production.[206]

The construction of a pipeline at a cost of $77  billion, to be jointly funded by Russia and China, was signed off on by President Putin in Shanghai on 21 May 2014. On completion in 4 to 6 years, the pipeline would deliver natural gas from the state-majority-owned Gazprom to China’s state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation for the next 30 years, in a deal worth $400bn.[207]

In 2014, the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project named Putin their Person of the Year Award for furthering corruption and organized crime.[208][209]

As noted by Russian journalists after the 2018 presidential inauguration, Putin has since 2007 repeated the prediction of Russia becoming “one of the world’s fifth largest economies” roughly within 10 years from that date and the target was never achieved.[210]

2014 financial crisis and economic downturn

The ongoing financial crisis began in the second half of 2014 when the Russian ruble collapsed due to a decline in the price of oil and international sanctions against Russia. These events in turn led to loss of investor confidence and capital flight.[211] Though it has also been argued that the sanctions had little to no effect on Russia’s economy.[212][213]

Russia responded with its own sanctions against the West. Additionally, to compensate for the sanctions, Russia developed closer economic ties with Eastern countries.[citation needed] In October 2014, energy, trade and finance agreements with China worth $25 billion were signed. The following year, a $400 billion 30-year natural gas supply agreement was also signed with China.[214]

Environmental policy

In 2004, President Putin signed the Kyoto Protocol treaty designed to reduce greenhouse gases.[215] However, Russia did not face mandatory cuts, because the Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from 1990 levels and Russia’s greenhouse-gas emissions fell well below the 1990 baseline due to a drop in economic output after the breakup of the Soviet Union.[216]

Putin personally supervises a number of protection programmes for rare and endangered animals in Russia, such as the Amur Tiger, the White Whale, the polar bear and the Snow Leopard.[217][218][219][220]

Religious policy

Putin with religious leaders of Russia, 2001

BuddhismEastern Orthodox ChristianityIslam and Judaism, defined by law as Russia’s traditional religions and a part of Russia’s historical heritage,[221]enjoyed limited state support in the Putin era. The vast construction and restoration of churches, started in the 1990s, continued under Putin, and the state allowed the teaching of religion in schools (parents are provided with a choice for their children to learn the basics of one of the traditional religions or secular ethics). His approach to religious policy has been characterized as one of support for religious freedoms, but also the attempt to unify different religions under the authority of the state.[222] In 2012, Putin was honored in Bethlehem and a street was named after him.[223]

Putin visiting the Tuva Republic, Siberia, 2007

Putin regularly attends the most important services of the Russian Orthodox Church on the main Orthodox Christian holidays. He established a good relationship with Patriarchs of the Russian Church, the late Alexy II of Moscow and the current Kirill of Moscow. As president, he took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, signed 17 May 2007 that restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the 80-year schism.[224]

Putin and United Russia enjoy high electoral support in the national republics of Russia, in particular in the Muslim-majority republics of Povolzhye and the North Caucasus.

Under Putin, the Hasidic FJCR became increasingly influential within the Jewish community, partly due to the influence of Federation-supporting businessmen mediated through their alliances with Putin, notably Lev Leviev and Roman Abramovich.[225][226] According to the JTA, Putin is popular amongst the Russian Jewish community, who see him as a force for stability. Russia’s chief rabbi, Berel Lazar, said Putin “paid great attention to the needs of our community and related to us with a deep respect”.[227] In 2016, Ronald S. Lauder, the president of the World Jewish Congress, also praised Putin for making Russia “a country where Jews are welcome”.[228]

Military development

Putin in the cockpit of a Tupolev Tu-160 strategic bomber before the flight, August 2005

Aboard battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiyduring Northern Fleet exercise in 2005

The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia’s strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukovduring his meeting with Putin on 5 December 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov, would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times.[229] The sortie was to be backed up by 47 aircraft, including strategic bombers.[230]

While from the early 2000s Russia started placing more money into its military and defense industry, it was only in 2008 that the full-scale Russian military reform began, aiming to modernize Russian Armed Forces and making them significantly more effective. The reform was largely carried out by Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov during Medvedev’s Presidency, under the supervision of both Putin, as the Head of Government, and Medvedev, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

Key elements of the reform included reducing the armed forces to a strength of one million; reducing the number of officers; centralising officer training from 65 military schools into 10 ‘systemic’ military training centres; creating a professional NCO corps; reducing the size of the central command; introducing more civilian logistics and auxiliary staff; elimination of cadre-strength formations; reorganising the reserves; reorganising the army into a brigade system, and reorganising air forces into an air base system instead of regiments.[231]

The number of Russia’s military districts was reduced to four. The term of draft service was reduced from two years to one, which put an end to the old harassment traditions in Russian army, since all conscripts became very close by draft age. The gradual transition to the majority professional army by the late 2010s was announced, and a large programme of supplying the Armed Forces with new military equipment and ships was started. The Russian Space Forces were replaced on 1 December 2011 with the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

In spite of Putin’s call for major investments in strategic nuclear weapons, these will fall well below the New START limits due to the retirement of aging systems.[232]

Putin has also sought to increase Russian territorial claims in the Arctic and its military presence here. In August 2007, Russian expedition Arktika 2007, part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial extension claim, planted a flag on the seabed below the North Pole.[233] Both Russian submarines and troops deployed in the Arctic have been increasing.[234][235]

Human rights policy

Russian opposition protest in Moscow, 26 February 2017

An NGO based in the New York City; Human Rights Watch; in a report entitled Laws of Attrition, authored by Hugh Williamson, the British director of HRW’s Europe & Central Asia Division, has claimed that since May 2012, when Putin was re-elected as president, Russia has enacted many restrictive laws, started inspections of nongovernmental organizations, harassed, intimidated, and imprisoned political activists, and started to restrict critics. The new laws include the “foreign agents” law, which is widely regarded as over-broad by including Russian human rights organizations which receive some international grant funding, the treason law, and the assembly law which penalizes many expressions of dissent.[236][237] human rights activists have criticized Russia for censoring speech of LGBT activists due to “the gay propaganda law”[238] and increasing violence against LGBT+ people due to the law.[239][240][241]

The media

Scott Gehlbach, an American Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, has claimed that since 1999, Putin has reportedly punished journalists who challenge his official point of view.[242] Maria Lipman, an American writing in Foreign Affairs (the journal of the Council on Foreign Relations), claims, “The crackdown that followed Putin’s return to the Kremlin in 2012 extended to the liberal media, which had until then been allowed to operate fairly independently.”[243] The Internet has attracted Putin’s attention because his critics have tried to use it to challenge his control of information.[244] Marian K. Leighton, who worked for the CIA as a Soviet analyst in the 1980s says, “Having muzzled Russia’s print and broadcast media, Putin focused his energies on the Internet.”[245] Robert W. Orttung and Christopher Walker report:

Reporters Without Borders, for instance, ranked Russia 148 in its 2013 list of 179 countries in terms of freedom of the press. It particularly criticized Russia for the crackdown on the political opposition and the failure of the authorities to vigorously pursue and bring to justice criminals who have murdered journalists. Freedom House ranks Russian media as “not free”, indicating that basic safeguards and guarantees for journalists and media enterprises are absent.[246]

In the early 2000s, Putin and others in his government began promoting the idea in Russian media that they are the modern-day version of the 17th-century Romanov tsars who ended Russia’s “Time of Troubles“, meaning they claim to be the peacemakers and stabilizers after the fall of the Soviet Union.[247]

Promoting conservatism

Putin attends the Orthodox Christmas service in the village Turginovo in Kalininsky DistrictTver Oblast, 7 January 2016

Putin has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and neo-liberalism and is identified by scholars with Russian conservatism.[248] Putin has promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by Alexander Prokhanov, stresses Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia’s historical greatness, and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies.[249] Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has been one of the key ideologists during Putin’s presidency.[250]

In cultural and social affairs Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox ChurchPatriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the Church, endorsed his election in 2012 stating Putin’s terms were like “a miracle of God.”[251] Steven Myers reports, “The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions… Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.”[252]

Mark Woods, a Baptist minister and contributing editor to Christian Today, provides specific examples of how the Church has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine.[253] More broadly the New York Times reports in September 2016 how that Church’s policy prescriptions support the Kremlin’s appeal to social conservatives:

“A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual rights above those of family, community or nation, the Russian Orthodox Church helps project Russia as the natural ally of all those who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism and women’s and gay rights.[254] “

International sporting events

photograph of a man in a red sweater giving a hug for a man wearing a suit
Captain of the Canada national teamCorey Perry, giving a hug for Putin, after winning the gold medal at the 2016 IIHF World Championship
photograph of a man wearing a suit holding a golden trophy while 13 people look on
Captain of the Croatia national football teamLuka Modrić, accepting the Golden Ball award at the hands of Putin after the 2018 FIFA World Cup Final

Putin has won international support for sport in Russia.[needs update?] In 2007, he led a successful effort on behalf of Sochi(located along the Black Sea near the border between Georgia and Russia) for the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics,[255] the first Winter Olympic Games to ever be hosted by Russia. Likewise, in 2008, the city of Kazanwon the bid for the 2013 Summer Universiade, and on 2 December 2010 Russia won the right to host the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 FIFA World Cup, also for the first time in Russian history. In 2013, Putin stated that gay athletes would not face any discrimination at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.[256]

Wildlife protection and conservation

Putin is chairman of the Russian Geographical Society‘s board of trustees and is actively engaged in the protection of rare species. The programs are being conducted by the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the Russian Academy of Sciences.[257]

Foreign policy

Putin’s visit to the United States in November 2001

Relations with South and East Asia

Putin and Chinese President Xi Jinping at the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade

In 2012, Putin wrote an article in the Hindu newspaper, saying that “The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step”.[258][259] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during Putin’s 2012 visit to India: “President Putin is a valued friend of India and the original architect of the India-Russia strategic partnership”.[260]

Putin’s Russia maintains positive relations with other BRIC countries. The country has sought to strengthen ties especially with the People’s Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline geared toward growing Chinese energy needs.[261] The mutual-security cooperation of the two countries and their central Asian neighbours is facilitated by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, KazakhstanKyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

The announcement made during the SCO summit that Russia resumes on a permanent basis the long-distance patrol flights of its strategic bombers (suspended in 1992)[262][263] in the light of joint Russian-Chinese military exercises, first-ever in history held on Russian territory,[264] made some experts believe that Putin is inclined to set up an anti-NATO bloc or the Asian version of OPEC.[265] When presented with the suggestion that “Western observers are already likening the SCO to a military organization that would stand in opposition to NATO”, Putin answered that “this kind of comparison is inappropriate in both form and substance”.[262]

Relations with post-Soviet states

A series of so-called colour revolutions in the post-Soviet states, namely the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in 2005, led to frictions in the relations of those countries with Russia. In December 2004, Putin criticised the Rose and Orange revolutions, saying: “If you have permanent revolutions you risk plunging the post-Soviet space into endless conflict”.[266]

Meeting with Mikheil Saakashvili, then-president of Georgia, in 2008

A number of economic disputes erupted between Russia and some neighbors, such as the Russian import ban of Georgian wine. And in some cases, such as the Russia–Ukraine gas disputes, the economic conflicts affected other European countries, for example when a January 2009 gas dispute with Ukraineled state-controlled Russian company Gazprom to halt its deliveries of natural gas to Ukraine,[267] which left a number of European states, to which Ukraine transits Russian gas, with serious shortages of natural gas in January 2009.[267]

The plans of Georgia and Ukraine to become members of NATO have caused some tensions between Russia and those states.[268] In 2010, Ukraine did abandon these plans.[269] Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine joined NATO Russia could contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[270] At the summit he told US President George W. Bush that “Ukraine is not even a state!” while the following year Putin referred to Ukraine as “Little Russia“.[271] Following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution in March 2014, the Russian Federation annexed Crimea.[272][273][274]According to Putin this was done because “Crimea has always been and remains an inseparable part of Russia”.[275] After the Russian annexion of Crimea he said that Ukraine includes “regions of Russia’s historic south” and “was created on a whim by the Bolsheviks“.[276] He went on to declare that the February 2014 ousting of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych had been orchestrated by the West as an attempt to weaken Russia. “Our Western partners have crossed a line. They behaved rudely, irresponsibly and unprofessionally,” he said, adding that the people who had come to power in Ukraine were “nationalists, neo-NazisRussophobes and anti-Semites“.[276] In a July 2014 speech midst an armed insurgency in Eastern Ukraine Putin stated he would use Russia’s “entire arsenal” and “the right of self defence” to protect Russian speakers outside Russia.[277]

Putin opens Wall of Griefmonument to victims of Stalinist repression, 30 October 2017

In late August 2014, Putin stated: “People who have their own views on history and the history of our country may argue with me, but it seems to me that the Russian and Ukrainian peoples are practically one people”.[278] After making a similar statement late December 2015 he stated: “the Ukrainian culture, as well as Ukrainian literature, surely has a source of its own”.[279]

The Eurasian Union with its current members: Russia, BelarusKazakhstanArmenia and Kyrgyzstan

In August 2008, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili attempted to restore control over the breakaway South Ossetia. However, the Georgian military was soon defeated in the resulting 2008 South Ossetia War after regular Russian forces entered South Ossetia and then Georgia proper, then also opened a second front in the other Georgian breakaway province of Abkhazia with Abkhazian forces.[280][281]

Despite existing or past tensions between Russia and most of the post-Soviet states, Putin has followed the policy of Eurasian integration. Putin endorsed the idea of a Eurasian Union in 2011;[282][283] the concept was proposed by the President of Kazakhstan in 1994.[284] On 18 November 2011, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement setting a target of establishing the Eurasian Union by 2015.[285] The Eurasian Union was established on 1 January 2015.[286]

Relations with the United States, Europe, and NATO

Putin meets with U.S. President Barack Obama in New York City, 29 September 2015

Under Putin, Russia’s relationships with NATO and the U.S. have passed through several stages. When he first became president, relations were cautious, but after the 9/11 attacks Putin quickly supported the U.S. in the War on Terror and the opportunity for partnership appeared.[287] However, the U.S. responded by further expansion of NATO to Russia’s borders and by unilateral withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.[287]

From 2003, when Russia did not support the Iraq War and when Putin became ever more distant from the West in his internal and external policies, relations continued to deteriorate. According to Russia scholar Stephen F. Cohen, the narrative of the mainstream U.S. media, following that of the White House, became anti-Putin.[287] In an interview with Michael Stürmer, Putin said there were three questions which most concerned Russia and Eastern Europe: namely, the status of Kosovo, the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and American plans to build missile defence sites in Poland and the Czech Republic, and suggested that all three were linked.[288] His view was that concessions by the West on one of the questions might be met with concessions from Russia on another.[288]

In a January 2007 interview, Putin said Russia was in favor of a democratic multipolar world and strengthening the systems of international law.[289]

In February 2007, Putin criticized what he called the United States’ monopolistic dominance in global relations, and “almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations”. He said the result of it is that “no one feels safe! Because no one can feel that international law is like a stone wall that will protect them. Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race”.[290] This came to be known as the Munich Speech, and former NATO secretary Jaap de Hoop Scheffer called the speech “disappointing and not helpful.”[291] The months following Putin’s Munich Speech[290] were marked by tension and a surge in rhetoric on both sides of the Atlantic. Both Russian and American officials, however, denied the idea of a new Cold War.[292] Putin publicly opposed plans for the U.S. missile shield in Europe and presented President George W. Bush with a counterproposal on 7 June 2007 which was declined.[293] Russia suspended its participation in the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty on 11 December 2007.[294]

Putin opposed Kosovo‘s 2008 declaration of independence, warning supporters of that precedent that it would de facto destabilize the whole system of international relations.[295][296][297]

Putin with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. The two leaders built up a close friendship

Putin had good relations with former American President George W. Bush, and many European leaders. His “cooler” and “more business-like” relationship with Germany’s current chancellor, Angela Merkel is often attributed to Merkel’s upbringing in the former DDR, where Putin was stationed as a KGB agent.[298] While he had the most friendly and warmer relationship with the former Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi;[299] the two leaders often described their relationship as a close friendship, continuing to organize bilateral meetings even after Berlusconi’s resignation in November 2011.[300]

In late 2013, Russian-American relations deteriorated further when the United States canceled a summit (for the first time since 1960) after Putin gave asylum to Edward Snowden, who had leaked classified information from the NSA.[301]

Relations were further strained after the 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the Annexation of Crimea.[302]

In 2014, Russia was suspended from the G8 group as a result of its annexation of Crimea.[303][304] However, in June 2015, Putin told an Italian newspaper that Russia has no intention of attacking NATO.[305]

Putin held a meeting in Sochi with German Chancellor Angela Merkel to discuss Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline, 18 May 2018

On 9 November 2016, Putin congratulated Donald Trump on becoming the 45th President of the United States.[306]

In December 2016, US intelligence officials (headed by James Clapper) quoted by CBS News stated that Putin approved the email hacking and cyber attacks during the U.S. election, against the democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton. A spokesman for Putin denied the reports.[307] Putin has repeatedly accused Hillary Clinton, who served as U.S. Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, of interfering in Russia’s internal affairs,[308] and in December 2016, Clinton accused Putin of having a personal grudge against her.[309][310]

With the election of Trump, Putin’s favorability among Americans in the United States received a sharp increase. According to Gallup, 22% of Americans have a positive view of Putin, the highest since 2003.[311] According to Putin, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War,[312] have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.[313]

Relations with the United Kingdom

In 2003, relations between Russia and the United Kingdom deteriorated when the United Kingdom granted political asylum to Putin’s former patron, oligarchBoris Berezovsky.[314] This deterioration was intensified by allegations that the British were spying and making secret payments to pro-democracy and human rights groups.[315]

Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

The end of 2006 brought more strained relations in the wake of the death by polonium poisoning of former KGB and FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko in London, who became an MI6 agent in 2003. In 2007, the crisis in relations continued with expulsion of four Russian envoys over Russia’s refusal to extradite former KGB bodyguard Andrei Lugovoi to face charges in the murder of Litvinenko.[314] Mirroring the British actions, Russia expelled UK diplomats and took other retaliatory steps.[314]

In 2015–16, the British Government conducted an inquiry into the death of Alexander Litvinenko. Its report was released in January 2016.[316] According to the report, “The FSB operation to kill Mr Litvinenko was probably approved by Mr Patrushev and also by President Putin.” The report outlined some possible motives for the murder, including Litvinenko’s public statements and booksabout the alleged involvement of the FSB in mass murder, and what was “undoubtedly a personal dimension to the antagonism” between Putin and Litvinenko, led to the murder. Media analyst William Dunkerley, writing in The Guardian, criticised the inquiry as politically motivated, biased, lacking in evidence, and logically inconsistent.[317] The Kremlin dismissed the Inquiry as “a joke” and “whitewash”.[318][319]

Poisoning of Sergei Skripal

On 4 March 2018, former double agent Sergei Skripal was poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent in Salisbury.[320] 10 days later, the British government formally accused the Russian state of attempted murder, a charge which Russia denied.[321] After the UK expelled 23 Russian diplomats (an action which would later be responded to with a Russian expulsion of 23 British diplomats),[322] British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said on 16 March that it was “overwhelmingly likely” Putin had personally ordered the poisoning of Skripal. Putin’s spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the allegation “shocking and unpardonable diplomatic misconduct”.[323]

Relations with Australia and Latin American countries

Putin and his successor, Medvedev, enjoyed warm relations with the late Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Much of this has been through the sale of military equipment; since 2005, Venezuela has purchased more than $4 billion worth of arms from Russia.[324] In September 2008, Russia sent Tupolev Tu-160 bombers to Venezuela to carry out training flights.[325] In November 2008, both countries held a joint naval exercise in the Caribbean. Earlier in 2000, Putin had re-established stronger ties with Fidel Castro‘s Cuba.[326]

BRICS leaders at the G-20 summitin Brisbane, Australia, 15 November 2014

In September 2007, Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years.[327] In the same month, Putin also attended the APEC meeting held in Sydney where he met with John Howard, who was the Australian Prime Minister at the time, and signed a uranium trade deal for Australia to sell uranium to Russia. This was the first visit by a Russian president to Australia.[328]

Relations with Middle Eastern and North African countries

On 16 October 2007, Putin visited Iran to participate in the Second Caspian Summit in Tehran,[329][330] where he met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[331][332] This was the first visit of a Soviet or Russian leader[333] to Iran since Joseph Stalin‘s participation in the Tehran Conference in 1943, and thus marked a significant event in Iran-Russia relations.[334] At a press conference after the summit Putin said that “all our (Caspian) states have the right to develop their peaceful nuclear programmes without any restrictions”.[335]

Putin with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, 2017

Subsequently, under Medvedev’s presidency, Iran-Russia relations were uneven: Russia did not fulfill the contract of selling to Iran the S-300, one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently existing. However, Russian specialists completed the construction of Iran and the Middle East’s first civilian nuclear power facility, the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, and Russia has continuously opposed the imposition of economic sanctions on Iran by the U.S. and the EU, as well as warning against a military attack on Iran. Putin was quoted as describing Iran as a “partner”,[288] though he expressed concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme.[288]

In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian President who visited Libya.[336] Putin condemned the foreign military intervention of Libya, he called UN resolution as “defective and flawed,” and added “It allows everything. It resembles medieval calls for crusades.”[337][338] Upon the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Putin called it as “planned murder” by the US, saying: “They showed to the whole world how he (Gaddafi) was killed,” and “There was blood all over. Is that what they call a democracy?”[339][340]

Putin with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Moscow, 9 March 2017

Regarding Syria, from 2000 to 2010 Russia sold around $1.5 billion worth of arms to that country, making Damascus Moscow’s seventh-largest client.[341]During the Syrian civil war, Russia threatened to veto any sanctions against the Syrian government,[342] and continued to supply arms to the regime.

Putin opposed any foreign intervention. In June 2012, in Paris, he rejected the statement of French President Francois Hollande who called on Bashar Al-Assad to step down. Putin echoed Assad’s argument that anti-regime militants were responsible for much of the bloodshed. He also talked about previous NATO interventions and their results, and asked “What is happening in Libya, in Iraq? Did they become safer? Where are they heading? Nobody has an answer”.[343]

On 11 September 2013, The New York Times published an op-ed by Putin urging caution against US intervention in Syria and criticizing American exceptionalism.[344] Putin subsequently helped to arrange for the destruction of Syria’s chemical weapons.[345] In 2015 he took a stronger pro-Assad stance[346] and mobilized military support for the regime. Some analysts have summarized Putin as being allied with Shiites and Alawites in the Middle East.[347][348]

BRICS Summit

President Putin has attended the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) Summit conferences since 2013.

Public image

Polls and rankings

Putin’s approval (blue) and disapproval (red) ratings 1999–2015. Putin reached an all-time high approval rating in June 2015 of 89%.[349]

According to a June 2007 public opinion survey, Putin’s approval rating was 81%, the second highest of any leader in the world that year.[350] In January 2013, at the time of 2011–2013 Russian protests, Putin’s approval rating fell to 62%, the lowest figure since 2000 and a ten-point drop over two years.[351]By May 2014, following the annexation of Crimea, Putin’s approval rating had rebounded to 85.9%, a six-year high.[352]

After EU and U.S. sanctions against Russian officials as a result of the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Putin’s approval rating reached 87 percent, according to a Levada Center survey published on 6 August 2014.[353][354] In February 2015, based on new domestic polling, Putin was ranked the world’s most popular politician.[355] In June 2015, Putin’s approval rating climbed to 89%, an all-time high.[349][356][357] In 2016, the approval rating was 81%.[358] In July 2018, Putin’s approval rating fell to 63% and just 49% would vote for Putin if presidential elections were held.[359][360]

Observers see Putin’s high approval ratings as a consequence of significant improvements in living standards, and Russia’s reassertion of itself on the world scene during his presidency.[361][362]

Despite high approval for Putin, confidence in the Russian economy is low, dropping to levels in 2016 that rivaled the recent lows in 2009 at the height of the global economic crisis. Just 14% of Russians in 2016 said their national economy was getting better, and 18% said this about their local economies.[363]Putin’s performance at reining in corruption is also unpopular among Russians. Newsweek reported in June 2017 that “An opinion poll by the Moscow-based Levada Center indicated that 67 percent held Putin personally responsible for high-level corruption”.[364]

The Levada Center survey showed that 58% of surveyed Russians supported the 2017 Russian protestsagainst high-level corruption.[365]


During his presidential campaign, Donald Trump stated that Putin has “been a leader far more than [Barack Obama] has been a leader.”[366] Trump’s running mate Mike Pence has also echoed similar remarks stating: “I think it’s inarguable that Vladimir Putin has been a stronger leader in his country than Barack Obama has been.”[367] Pence also said: “When Donald Trump and I observe that, as I’ve said in Syria, in Iran, in Ukraine, that the small and bullying leader of Russia has been stronger on the world stage than [Obama] administration, that’s stating painful facts. That’s not an endorsement of Vladimir Putin.”[368]

Critics state that Putin has moved Russia in an autocratic direction.[369] Putin has been described as a “dictator” by political opponent Garry Kasparov, as a “bully” and “arrogant” by former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and as “self-centered” and an “isolationist” by the Dalai Lama.[370][371][372][373][374]Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in 2014 that the West has demonized Putin.[375]

Many Russians credit Putin for reviving Russia’s fortunes.[376] Former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev, while acknowledging the flawed democratic procedures and restrictions on media freedom during the Putin presidency, said that Putin had pulled Russia out of chaos at the end of the Yeltsin years, and that Russians “must remember that Putin saved Russia from the beginning of a collapse.”[376][377] In 2015, opposition politician Boris Nemtsov said that Putin was turning Russia into a “raw materials colony” of China.[378] Chechen Republic head and Putin supporter, Ramzan Kadyrov, states that Putin saved both the Chechen people and Russia.[379]

Russia has suffered democratic backsliding during Putin’s tenure. Freedom House has listed Russia as being “not free” since 2005.[380] In 2004, Freedom House warned that Russia’s “retreat from freedom marks a low point not registered since 1989, when the country was part of the Soviet Union.”[381] The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Russia as “authoritarian” since 2011,[382]whereas it had previously been considered a “hybrid regime” (with “some form of democratic government” in place) as late as 2007.[383] According to political scientist, Larry Diamond, writing in 2015, “no serious scholar would consider Russia today a democracy”.[384]

Personal image

Driving a F1 race car, 2010 (see video)

Putin cultivates an outdoor, sporty, tough guy public image, demonstrating his physical prowess and taking part in unusual or dangerous acts, such as extreme sports and interaction with wild animals,[385] part of a public relations approach that, according to Wired, “deliberately cultivates the macho, take-charge superhero image”.[386] For example, in 2007, the tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda published a huge photograph of a bare-chested Putin vacationing in the Siberian mountains under the headline: “Be Like Putin.”[387] Some of the activities have been criticised for being staged.[388][389] Outside of Russia, Putin’s macho image has been the subject of parody.[390][391][392]

Notable examples of Putin’s adventures include:[393] flying military jets, demonstrating martial arts, riding horsesrafting, and fishing and swimming in a cold Siberian river, many of which he did bare chested.[387] Other examples are descending in a deepwater submersible, tranquilizing tigers and polar bears,[387][394][395] riding a motorbike,[396] co-piloting a firefighting plane to dump water on a raging fire,[386] shooting darts at whales from a crossbow for eco-tracking,[397] driving a race car,[393][398] scuba diving at an archaeological site,[388][399] attempting to lead endangered cranes in a motorized hang glider,[400] and catching large fish.[401][402]

There are a large number of songs about Putin.[403] Some of the well-known include: “Go Hard Like Vladimir Putin” by K. King and Beni Maniaci,[404] “VVP” by Tajik singer Tolibjon Kurbankhanov,[405][406] “Our Madhouse is Voting for Putin” by Working Faculty and “A Song About Putin” by the Russian Airborne Troops band.[407] There is also “Putin khuilo!“, the song, originally emerged as chants by Ukrainian football fans and spread in Ukraine (among supporters of Euromaidan), then in other countries.[408] A song called “A Man Like Putin” by Poyushchie vmeste was also a hit across Russia, topping the Russian Music Charts in 2002.[409]

Putin’s name and image are widely used in advertisement and product branding.[386] Among the Putin-branded products are Putinka vodka, the PuTin brand of canned food, the Gorbusha Putinacaviar and a collection of T-shirts with his image.[410]

In 2015, his advisor was found dead after days of excessive consumption of alcohol, though this was later ruled an accident.[411]

Publication recognition in the United States

In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year.[412][413] In 2015, he was No. 1 on the Time’s Most Influential People List.[414][415][416] Forbes ranked him the World’s Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016.[417]


Putin has produced a large number of aphorisms and catch-phrases known as putinisms.[418] Many of them were first made during his annual Q&A conferences, where Putin answered questions from journalists and other people in the studio, as well as from Russians throughout the country, who either phoned in or spoke from studios and outdoor sites across Russia. Putin is known for his often tough and sharp language, often alluding to Russian jokesand folk sayings.[418]

Putin sometimes uses Russian criminal jargon (fenya), not always correctly.[419]

Electoral history

Personal life


Putin with family in Primorsky KraiRussian Far East, 2002

Putin and Lyudmila Putina at their wedding, 28 July 1983

Vladimir and Lyudmila Putin visiting the Taj Mahal, Agra, India, October 2000[420][421]

On 28 July 1983, Putin married Lyudmila Shkrebneva, and they lived together in East Germany from 1985 to 1990. They have two daughters, Mariya Putina, born 28 April 1985 in Leningrad, and Yekaterina Putina, born 31 August 1986 in Dresden, East Germany.[422]

On 6 June 2013, Putin announced that their marriage was over, and on 1 April 2014, the Kremlin confirmed that the divorce had been finalized.[423][424][425]

Personal wealth

Figures released during the legislative election of 2007 put Putin’s wealth at approximately 3.7 million rubles(US$150,000) in bank accounts, a private 77.4-square-meter (833 sq ft) apartment in Saint Petersburg, and miscellaneous other assets.[426][427][428] Putin’s reported 2006 income totalled 2 million rubles (approximately $80,000). In 2012, Putin reported an income of 3.6 million rubles ($113,000).[429][430]

According to Russian opposition politicians and journalists, Putin secretly possesses a multibillion-dollar fortune[431] via successive ownership of stakes in a number of Russian companies.[432][433] However, according to one editorial in The Washington Post, “Estimates of Putin’s wealth lack even the smallest thread of evidence.”[434]

In April 2016, 11 million documents belonging to Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung and the Washington-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. The name of Vladimir Putin does not appear in any of the records, and Putin denied his involvement with the company.[435] However, various media have reported on three of Putin’s associates on the list.[436] According to the Panama Papers leak, close trustees of Putin own offshore companies worth US$2 billion in total.[437] The German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung regards the possibility of Putin’s family profiting from this money as plausible.[438][439]

According to the paper, the US$2 billion had been “secretly shuffled through banks and shadow companies linked to Putin’s associates”, and Bank Rossiya, previously identified by the U.S. State Department as being treated by Putin as his personal bank account, had been central in facilitating this. It concludes that “Putin has shown he is willing to take aggressive steps to maintain secrecy and protect [such] communal assets.”[440][441] A significant proportion of the money trail leads to Putin’s best friend Sergei Roldugin. Although a musician, and in his own words, not a businessman, it appears he has accumulated assets valued at $100m, and possibly more. It has been suggested he was picked for the role because of his low profile.[436] There have been speculations that Putin, in fact, owns the funds,[442] and Roldugin just acted as a proxy. Putin himself denied it,[435][443] and his press-secretary, Dmitry Peskov, said the leak was a conspiracy aimed at Putin.[444]


Official government residences

As president and prime-minister, Putin has lived in numerous official residences throughout the country.[445] These residences include: the Moscow KremlinNovo-Ogaryovo in Moscow Oblast, the White House in MoscowGorki-9 near Moscow, Bocharov Ruchey in SochiDolgiye Borody in Novgorod Oblast, and Riviera in Sochi.[446]

In August 2012, critics of President Vladimir Putin listed the ownership of 20 villas and palaces, nine of which were built during Putin’s 12 years in power.[447]

Personal residences

Soon after Putin returned from his KGB service in Dresden, East Germany, he built a dacha in Solovyovka on the eastern shore of Lake Komsomolskoye on the Karelian Isthmus in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, near St. Petersburg. After the dacha burned down in 1996, Putin built a new one identical to the original and was joined by a group of seven friends who built dachas nearby. In 1996, the group formally registered their fraternity as a co-operative society, calling it Ozero (“Lake”) and turning it into a gated community.[448]

A massive Italianate-style mansion costing an alleged US$1 billion[449] and dubbed “Putin’s Palace” is under construction near the Black Sea village of Praskoveevka. The mansion, built on government land and sporting 3 helipads, and a private road paid for from state funds and guarded by officials wearing uniforms of the official Kremlin guard service, is said to have been built for Putin’s private use.[by whom?] In 2012 Sergei Kolesnikov, a former business associate of Putin’s, told the BBC’s Newsnight programme that he had been ordered by Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin to oversee the building of the palace.[450]


Konni with President Vladimir Putin in 2001

Putin has three dogs, Buffy, Yume, and Verni. Buffy, a Karakachan dog, was given to President Putin in November 2010 by the Bulgarian Prime Minister, Boyko Borisov. Yume is an Akita Inu dog which arrived in Moscow in July 2012 as a three-month-old puppy as the Akita Prefecture‘s gift to show gratitude for Russia’s assistance to Japan after the devastating earthquake and tsunami in 2011.[451] Verni, which is an Alabai – a Turkmen-bred variety of the Central Asia shepherd dog – was a birthday gift from the leader of Turkmenistan during a meeting in Sochi in October 2017.[452]


Putin and wife Lyudmila in New York at a service for victims of the September 11 attacks, 16 November 2001

Putin’s mother was a devoted Christian believer who attended the Russian Orthodox Church, and his father was an atheist.[453][454] Though his mother kept no icons at home, she attended church regularly, despite government persecution of her religion at that time. His mother secretly baptized him as a baby, and she regularly took him to services.[37]

According to Putin, his religious awakening began after a serious car crash involving his wife in 1993, and a life-threatening fire that burned down their dacha in August 1996.[454] Shortly before an official visit to Israel, Putin’s mother gave him his baptismal cross, telling him to get it blessed. Putin states, “I did as she said and then put the cross around my neck. I have never taken it off since.”[37] When asked in 2007 whether he believes in God, he responded, “… There are things I believe, which should not in my position, at least, be shared with the public at large for everybody’s consumption because that would look like self-advertising or a political striptease.”[455] Putin’s rumoured confessor is Russian Orthodox Bishop Tikhon Shevkunov.[456]


File:Vladimir Putin speech to IOC in Guatemala City.ogv

Addressing Olympic Committee in Guatemala, July 2007, in English. He also speaks German[457][458] and Swedish.[459]

Putin is frequently seen promoting sports and a healthy way of life among Russians, including promoting skiing, badminton, cycling, and fishing.[460][461]

Putin watches football, and supports FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, from his home city.[462] He also has displayed an interest in ice hockey and bandy, the latter which in Russia often is called ‘Russian hockey’.[463]

Putin began training in sambo at the age of 14, before switching to judo, which he continues to practice.[464] Putin won competitions in both sports in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). Putin was awarded 8th dan of the black belt in 2012 and became the first Russian to have been awarded the eighth dan, joining a handful of judo fighters in the world who have achieved such status.[465] Putin also practises karate.[466]

Putin co-authored a book on his favorite sport, published in Russian as Judo with Vladimir Putin, and in English under the title Judo: History, Theory, Practice (2004).[467] Benjamin Wittes, a black belt in taekwondo and aikido and editor of Lawfare, has disputed Putin’s martial arts skills, saying that there is no video evidence of Putin displaying any actual noteworthy judo skills.[468][469]


Civilian awards presented by different countries

Date Country Award Presenter Notes
11 July 2014 Cuba Order of José Martí[470] President Raúl Castro Cuba’s highest decoration
16 October 2014 Serbia Order of the Republic of Serbia[471] President Tomislav Nikolić Grand Collar, Serbia’s highest award
4 October 2013 Monaco Order of Saint-Charles[472] Prince Albert Monaco’s highest decoration
2 April 2010 Venezuela Order of the Liberator[473] President Hugo Chávez Venezuela’s highest distinction
10 September 2007 UAE Order of Zayed[474] Sheikh Khalifa UAE’s highest civil decoration
12 February 2007 Saudi Arabia Order of Abdulaziz al Saud[475] King Abdullah Saudi Arabia’s highest civilian award
2007 Tajikistan Order of Ismoili Somoni[476] Tajikistan’s highest distinction
22 September 2006 France Légion d’honneur[477] President Jacques Chirac Grand-Croix (Grand Cross) rank is the highest French decoration
2006 Order of Sheikh ul-Islam Highest Muslim order,[478] awarded for his role in interfaith dialogue between Muslims and Christians in the region[479]
2004 Kazakhstan Order of the Golden Eagle[480] Kazakhstan’s highest distinction
7 March 2001 Vietnam Order of Ho Chi Minh[481] Vietnam’s second highest distinction
3 October 2017 Turkmenistan Order “For contribution to the development of cooperation” President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
8 June 2018 China Order of Friendship[482] President Xi Jinping

Honorary doctorates

Date University/ Institute
2011 University of Belgrade[483]
2001 Athens University[484]
2001 Yerevan State University[485]

Other awards

Year Award Notes
2015 Angel of Peace Medal Pope Francis presented Putin with the Angel of Peace Medal,[486] which is a customary gift to presidents visiting the Vatican.[487]
15 November 2011 Confucius Peace Prize The China International Peace Research Centre awarded the Confucius Peace Prize to Putin, citing as reason Putin’s opposition to NATO’s Libya bombing in 2011 while also paying tribute to his decision to go to war in Chechnya in 1999.[488] According to the committee, Putin’s “Iron hand and toughness revealed in this war impressed the Russians a lot, and he was regarded to be capable of bringing safety and stability to Russia”.[489]


Year Award/Recognition Description
February 2011 Vladimir Putin Peak The parliament of Kyrgyzstan named a peak in Tian Shan mountains Vladimir Putin Peak.[490]
5 October 2008 Vladimir Putin Avenue The central street of Grozny, the capital of Russia’s Republic of Chechnya, was renamed from the Victory Avenue to the Vladimir Putin Avenue, as ordered by the Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov.[491]
December 2007 ExpertPerson of the Year A Russian business-oriented weekly magazine named Putin as its Person of the Year.[492]
2007 Time: Person of the Year “His final year as Russia’s president has been his most successful yet. At home, he secured his political future. Abroad, he expanded his outsize—if not always benign—influence on global affairs.”[493]



  1. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin quits as head of Russia’s ruling party”. 24 April 2012 – via The Daily Telegraph.
  2. Jump up^
  3. Jump up to:a b “Kremlin Biography of President Vladimir Putin”. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  4. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin – President of Russia” 22 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  5. Jump up^ “President Vladimir Putin on”. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  6. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin’s Presidential Inauguration Ceremony in the Kremlin”. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2016 – via YouTube.
  7. Jump up^ Bohlen, Celestine (1 January 2000). “YELTSIN RESIGNS: THE OVERVIEW; Yeltsin Resigns, Naming Putin as Acting President To Run in March Election”The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  8. Jump up to:a b Hoffman, David (30 January 2000). “Putin’s Career Rooted in Russia’s KGB”The Washington Post.
  9. Jump up^ Paddock, Richard C. (27 March 2000). “Putin Rolls to Victory, Avoiding a Runoff”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 May2017.
  10. Jump up^ Guriev, Sergei; Tsyvinski, Aleh (2010). “Challenges Facing the Russian Economy after the Crisis”. In Anders Åslund, Sergei Guriev, Andrew C. Kuchins. Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Centre for Strategic and International Studies; New Economic School. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9780881324976.
  11. Jump up^ GDP of Russia from 1992 to 2007 International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 May 2008
  12. Jump up to:a b c Putin: Russia’s Choice, (Routledge 2007), by Richard Sakwa, Chapter 9
  13. Jump up to:a b c Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin, Yale University Press (2013), by Ben Judah, page 17
  14. Jump up^ Hale, Henry E.; Timothy J. Colton (8 September 2009). “Russians and the Putin-Medvedev “Tandemocracy”: A Survey-Based Portrait of the 2007–08 Election Season” (PDF). The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  15. Jump up^ Vasilyeva, Natallya. “Putin claims to support term limits as he readies to take helm for 3rd time”China Post (12 April 2012).
  16. Jump up^ Shuster, Simon. “In Russia, an Election Victory for Putin and Then a ‘Paid Flash Mob'”Time (5 March 2012).
  17. Jump up^ Thompson, Mark (26 January 2016). “Russia: One of 10 worst economies in 2015”. CNN.
  18. Jump up^ “Russian economy in turmoil as Putin is battered by falling oil price and sanctions”The Daily Telegraph. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  19. Jump up^ “Russian Economy Crawled to Growth With Recession in Rearview”. Bloomberg. 31 March 2017.
  20. Jump up^ “It’s Official: Sanctioned Russia Now Recession Free”Forbes. 3 April 2017.
  21. Jump up^ “Russia’s Putin wins by big margin”BBC News. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  22. Jump up^ Diamond, Larry (7 January 2015). “Facing Up to the Democratic Recession”Journal of Democracy26 (1): 141–155. doi:10.1353/jod.2015.0009ISSN 1086-3214.
  23. Jump up^ Levitsky, Steven; Way, Lucan A. (16 August 2010). Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139491488.
  24. Jump up^ “Building authoritarian polity russia post soviet times | Russian and east European government, politics and policy”Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  25. Jump up^ Reuter, Ora John (2017). The Origins of Dominant Parties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781316761649ISBN 9781316761649.
  26. Jump up^ “Authoritarian Modernization in Russia: Ideas, Institutions, and Policies (Hardback) – Routledge” Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  27. Jump up^ “Here are 10 critics of Vladimir Putin who died violently or in suspicious ways”The Washington Post. 23 March 2017.
  28. Jump up^ “Putin says claims of Russian meddling in U.S. election are ‘just some kind of hysteria'”Los Angeles Times. 2 June 2017.
  29. Jump up^ Kiely, Eugene; Gore, D’Angelo (19 February 2018). “In His Own Words: Trump on Russian Meddling”
  30. Jump up^ Greenberg, Don (19 February 2018). “Donald Trump falsely says he never denied Russian meddling”Politifact. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  31. Jump up to:a b c Rosenberg, Matt (12 August 2016). “When Was St. Petersburg Known as Petrograd and Leningrad?”. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  32. Jump up^ “Prime Minister of the Russian Federation – Biography”. 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  33. Jump up^ Pukas, Anna (22 July 2014). “Is Vladimir Putin mad or just bad?”. Sunday Express.
  34. Jump up^ Vladimir Putin; Nataliya Gevorkyan; Natalya Timakova; Andrei Kolesnikov (2000). First Person. trans. Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. PublicAffairs. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-58648-018-9.
  35. Jump up^ First Person An Astonishingly Frank Self-Portrait by Russia’s President Vladimir Putin The New York Times, 2000
  36. Jump up^ Putin’s Obscure Path From KGB to Kremlin Los Angeles Times, 19 March 2000
  37. Jump up to:a b c (Sakwa 2008, p. 3)
  38. Jump up^ Sakwa, Richard. Putin Redux: Power and Contradiction in Contemporary Russia (2014), p. 2.
  39. Jump up^ “Prime Minister”. Retrieved 24 September2011.
  40. Jump up^ “Putin Dazzles With German Language Skills”. Russia: RT. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  41. Jump up^ “In Tel Aviv, Putin’s German Teacher Recalls ‘Disciplined’ Student”Haaretz. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
  42. Jump up^ Lynch, Allen. Vladimir Putin and Russian Statecraft, p. 15 (Potomac Books 2011).
  43. Jump up^ Владимир Путин. От Первого ЛицаChapter 6Archived 30 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  44. Jump up to:a b c d Pribylovsky, Vladimir (2010). “Valdimir Putin”. Власть-2010 (60 биографий) (PDF) (in Russian). Moscow: Panorama. pp. 132–139. ISBN 978-5-94420-038-9.
  45. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin as a Spy Working Undercover from 1983”. 30 June 1983. Retrieved 8 April 2017 – via YouTube.
  46. Jump up^ (Sakwa 2008, pp. 8–9)
  47. Jump up to:a b Hoffman, David (30 January 2000). “Putin’s Career Rooted in Russia’s KGB”The Washington Post.
  48. Jump up^ “Putin set to visit Dresden, the place of his work as a KGB spy, to tend relations with Germany”International Herald Tribune. 9 October 2006. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009.
  49. Jump up to:a b Gessen, Masha (2012). The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin (1st ed.). New York City: Riverhead. p. 60. ISBN 978-1594488429. Retrieved 3 March2014.
  50. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin, The Imperialist”Time. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  51. Jump up to:a b Sakwa, Richard (2007). Putin : Russia’s Choice (2nd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9780415407656. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  52. Jump up^ R. Sakwa Putin: Russia’s Choice, pp. 10–11
  53. Jump up^ R. Sakwa Putin: Russia’s Choice, p. 11
  54. Jump up^ Remick, David“Watching the Eclipse”The New Yorker (11 August 2014). Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  55. Jump up^ Newsweek, “Russia’s Mighty Mouse”, 25 February 2008.
  56. Jump up^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  57. Jump up^ Kovalev, Vladimir (23 July 2004). “Uproar at Honor For Putin”The Saint Petersburg Times.
  58. Jump up^ Hoffman, David (30 January 2000). “Putin’s Career Rooted in Russia’s KGB”The Washington Post.
  59. Jump up^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007. by Catherine Belton
  60. Jump up^ Walsh, Nick Paton (29 February 2004). “The Man Who Wasn’t There”The Observer.
  61. Jump up to:a b Владимир Путин: от ассистента Собчака до и.о. премьера (in Russian). GAZETA.RU.
  62. Jump up^ “ПУТИН – КАНДИДАТ НАУК” (in Russian). 24 May 2000. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013.
  63. Jump up^ Gustafson, Thane. Wheel of Fortune: The Battle for Oil and Power in Russia, p. 246 (Harvard University Press, 2012).
  64. Jump up to:a b “It All Boils Down to Plagiarism”. 31 March 2006. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  65. Jump up to:a b Maxim Shishkin, Dmitry Butrin; Mikhail Shevchuk. “The President as Candidate”Kommersant. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  66. Jump up^ “Researchers peg Putin as plagiarist over thesis”The Washington Times. 24 March 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  67. Jump up^ The Half-Decay Products (in Russian) by Oleg Odnokolenko. Itogi, #47(545), 2 January 2007.
  68. Jump up^ Rosefielde, StevenHedlund, Stefan (2009). Russia Since 1980. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-521-84913-5. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  69. Jump up^ “Text of Yeltsin’s speech in English”BBC News. 9 August 1999. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  70. Jump up^ Yeltsin redraws political map BBC, 10 August 1999
  71. Jump up^ “Yeltsin’s man wins approval”BBC News. 16 August 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  72. Jump up^ Richard Sakwa Putin: Russia’s choice, 2008. p. 20.
  73. Jump up^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2 July 2001. Retrieved 2 July 2001. Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt
  74. Jump up^ “Russia: Putin Travels To Chechnya To Visit Troops”Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 March 2000.
  76. Jump up^ Александр Колесниченко. “”Развращение” первого лица. Госдума не решилась покуситься на неприкосновенность экс-президента”. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  77. Jump up^ Ignatius, Adi. Person of the Year 2007: A Tsar Is BornTime, page 4 (19 December 2007). Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  78. Jump up^ “ДЕЛО ПУТИНА”. Novaya Gazeta. 20–23 March 2000. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  79. Jump up^ “Компромат.Ru / Compromat.Ru: Фигунанты по квартирному делу” Retrieved 19 March2016.
  80. Jump up^ Dawisha, Karen (22 September 2015). Putin’s Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781476795201.
  81. Jump up^ “Почему Марина Салье молчала о Путине 10 лет?”. Radio Svoboda. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  82. Jump up to:a b c “История президентских выборов в России”РИА Новости. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  83. Jump up to:a b Spectre of Kursk haunts PutinBBC News, 12 August 2001
  84. Jump up^ Putin: Russia’s Choice, By Richard Sakwa, (Routledge, 2008) page 143-150
  85. Jump up^ Playing Russian Roulette: Putin in search of good governance, by Andre Mommen, in Good Governance in the Era of Global Neoliberalism: Conflict and Depolitisation in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, By Jolle Demmers, Alex E. Fernández Jilberto, Barbara Hogenboom (Routledge, 2004)
  86. Jump up^ “Regions and territories: Chechnya”. Retrieved 9 April2016.
  87. Jump up^ “Can Grozny be groovy?”The Independent. London. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007.
  88. Jump up^ “Human Rights Watch Reports, on human rights abuses in Chechnya”. Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  89. Jump up^ The World Factbook Retrieved 25 November 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  90. Jump up^ “Russian President Vladimir Putin Arrives at Bush Home in Maine”. Associated Press, USA. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2017 – via YouTube.
  91. Jump up^ “Presidents Bush and Putin Press Conference in Maine”. Associated Press, USA. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2017 – via YouTube.
  92. Jump up^ “President George W. Bush on The Ellen Show”. TheEllenShow, USA. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017 – via YouTube.
  93. Jump up^ Moscow siege leaves dark memoriesBBC News, 16 December 2002
  94. Jump up^ “On this Day December 25: Gorbachev resigns as Soviet Union breaks up”BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  95. Jump up^ “Putin deplores collapse of USSR”BBC News. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  96. Jump up^ Gold, Martin (16 September 2015). “Understanding the Russian Move into Ukraine”The National Law Review. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  97. Jump up^ Krainova, N. (5 March 2013). “Life Expectancy in Russia Is Stagnant, Study Says”The Moscow Times. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  98. Jump up^ “The challenges of the Medvedev era” (PDF). BOFIT Online. 24 June 2008. ISSN 1456-811X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 24 September2011.
  99. Jump up to:a b c “BBC Russian – Россия – Путин очертил “дорожную карту” третьего срока”. BBC. Retrieved 25 November2015.
  100. Jump up^ How to Steal Legally The Moscow Times, 15 February 2008 (issue 3843, page 8).
  101. Jump up^ Putin’s Gamble. Where Russia is headed by Nikolas Gvosdev,, 5 November 2003. Archived28 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  102. Jump up^ Putin’s Kremlin Asserting More Control of Economy. Yukos Case Reflects Shift on Owning Assets, Notably in Energy by Peter BakerThe Washington Post, 9 July 2004.
  103. Jump up^ “Hague court awards $50 bn compensation to Yukos shareholders”Russia Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  104. Jump up^ “Putin’s Russia failed to protect this brave woman – Joan Smith”The Independent. London. 9 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 22 June2013.
  105. Jump up^ “Anna Politkovskaya, Prominent Russian Journalist, Putin Critic and Human Rights Activist, Murdered in Moscow”Democracy Now. 9 October 2006. Archived from the originalon 10 October 2006.
  106. Jump up^ Kolesnikov, Andrey (11 October 2006). “Vladimir Putin and Angela Merkel Work Together”Kommersant. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  107. Jump up^ Lee, Steven (10 March 2007). “Kasparov, Building Opposition to Putin”The New York Times. Russia. Retrieved 2 March2010.
  108. Jump up^ “Garry Kasparov jailed over rally”BBC News. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  109. Jump up^ “Putin Dissolves Government, Nominates Viktor Zubkov as New Prime Minister”. Fox News Channel. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  110. Jump up^ Election Preliminary Results for United Russia, 4 December 2007,
  111. Jump up^ Russians Voted In Favour of Putin Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., 4 December 2007, Izvestia
  112. Jump up^ Assenters’ March Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., 3 December 2007, Izvestia
  113. Jump up^ “Putin Is Approved as Prime Minister”The New York Times. 9 May 2008.
  114. Jump up^ “Russia’s Putin set to return as president in 2012”BBC News. 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  115. Jump up^ Russian election protests – follow live updatesThe Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2011
  116. Jump up^ Как митинг на Поклонной собрал около 140 000 человек (in Russian)
  117. Jump up^ Sputnik (4 March 2012). “‘We Won in Fair and Open Fight’ – Putin”. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  118. Jump up^ Sputnik (23 February 2012). “Putin Supporters Fill Moscow Stadium”. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  119. Jump up^ Frum, David (June 2014), “What Putin Wants”, The Atlantic313 (5): 46–48
  120. Jump up^ Osborn, Andrew (24 September 2011). “Vladimir Putin on course to be Russia’s next president as Dmitry Medvedev steps aside”The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  121. Jump up^ “Medvedev backs Putin for Russian president”RIA Novosti. 24 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  122. Jump up^ “Putin won ‘rigged elections'”BBC News. 11 September 2000.
  123. Jump up^ Выборы Президента Российской Федерации (in Russian). Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  124. Jump up^ “Putin Hails Vote Victory, Opponents Cry Foul”. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  125. Jump up^ James Ball. “Russian election: does the data suggest Putin won through fraud?”The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  126. Jump up^ “Russia’s presidential election marked by unequal campaign conditions, active citizens’ engagement, international observers say”Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
  127. Jump up^ Elder, Miriam (17 August 2012). “Pussy Riot sentenced to two years in prison colony over anti-Putin protest”The Guardian. London.
  128. Jump up^ Провокация вместо марша
  129. Jump up^ “Russian police battle anti-Putin protesters”. Reuters. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  130. Jump up^ “СК пересчитал пострадавших полицейских во время “Марша миллионов”” Retrieved 25 November2015.
  131. Jump up^ Parfitt, Tom (7 May 2012). “Vladimir Putin inauguration shows how popularity has crumbled”The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  132. Jump up^ “Putin tells stadium rally ‘battle’ is on for Russia”. BBC. 23 February 2012.
  133. Jump up^ Ross, Cameron (2016). Systemic and Non-Systemic Opposition in the Russian Federation: Civil Society Awakens?. Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 978-1317047230.
  134. Jump up^ “Resolute Putin Faces a Russia That’s Changed”The New York Times. 23 February 2012.
  135. Jump up^ “Putin, Addressing Rally, Casts Himself as Unifier”The Wall Street Journal. 24 February 2012.
  136. Jump up^ “Pro-Putin rally draws tens of thousands”. Al Jazeera. 23 February 2012.
  137. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin inaugurated as Russian president amid Moscow protests”The Guardian. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  138. Jump up^ “”Putin decrees EU closeness policy”, Voice of Russia, May 7, 2012″. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June2013.
  139. Jump up^ Госдума приняла закон о ‘нетрадиционных отношениях’ [The State Duma has adopted a law on ‘non-traditional relationships’] (in Russian). BBC Russia. 11 June 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  140. Jump up^ “ГД приняла закон об усилении наказания за пропаганду гомосексуализма среди подростков”RBC. 11 June 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  141. Jump up^ SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (6 April 2012). “”Discrimination in Russia: Arrests for Violation of St. Petersburg Anti-Gay Law”, Spiegel Online, April, 06, 2012″Der Spiegel.
  142. Jump up^ “”Russian parliament backs ban on “gay propaganda”, Reuters, 25 January 2013″. Reuters. 25 January 2013.
  143. Jump up^ Jivanda, Tomas (19 January 2014). “Vladimir Putin: ‘I know some people who are gay, we’re on friendly terms'”The Independent. London. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  144. Jump up^ Putin becomes Popular Front for Russia leaderInterfax-Ukraine (13 June 2013) Archived 15 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  145. Jump up^ “Echo of Soviet era in Putin’s bid for votes”The Australian. 17 June 2011.
  146. Jump up^ “Putin inaugurates new movement amid fresh protests”. BBC. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  147. Jump up^ “BBC Radio 4 – Analysis, Maskirovka: Deception Russian-Style”. BBC. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  148. Jump up^ Lally, Kathy (17 April 2014). “Putin’s remarks raise fears of future moves against Ukraine “The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  149. Jump up^ “President of Russia”. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  150. Jump up^ Per Liljas (19 August 2014). “Rebels in Besieged Ukrainian City Reportedly Being Reinforced”Time. Time. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  151. Jump up^ “How the war zone transformed between June 16 and Sept. 19”Kyiv Post. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 March2015.
  152. Jump up^ “Exclusive: Charred tanks in Ukraine point to Russian involvement”. Reuters. 23 October 2014.
  153. Jump up^ unian, 8 April 2015 debaltseve pocket created by Russian troops – yashin
  154. Jump up^ Channel 4 News, 2 September 2014 tensions still high in Ukraine
  155. Jump up^ Luke Harding. “Ukraine ceasefire leaves frontline counting cost of war in uneasy calm”The Guardian. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  156. Jump up^ “Kiev claims ‘intensive’ movements of troops crossing from Russia”. Agence France-Presse. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  157. Jump up^ various reuters (9 November 2014). “worst east Ukraine shelling for month”. Reuters. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  158. Jump up^ “Spot report by the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine (SMM), 8 November 2014”. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  159. Jump up^ “Ukraine Crisis: Russian ‘Cargo 200’ Crossed Border — OSCE”. BBC, UK. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  160. Jump up^ “ОБСЕ заявляет, что на ростовских КПП были машины с надписью “груз 200″” (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  161. Jump up^ “Moscow Stifles Dissent as Soldiers Return From Ukraine in Coffins”The Moscow Times. Reuters. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  162. Jump up^ “Response to Special Representative in Ukraine Ambassador Martin Sajdik and OSCE Special Monitoring Mission Chief Monitor Ertugrul Apakan”U.S. Mission to the OSCE. 4 November 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  163. Jump up^ “Russia said to redeploy special-ops forces from Ukraine to Syria”Fox News Channel. 24 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015“The special forces were pulled out of Ukraine and sent to Syria,” a Russian Ministry of Defense official said, adding that they had been serving in territories in eastern Ukraine held by pro-Russia rebels. The official described them as “akin to a Delta Force,” the U.S. Army’s elite counterterrorism unit.
  164. Jump up^ Walker, Shaun (17 December 2015). “Putin admits Russian military presence in Ukraine for first time”The Guardian.
  165. Jump up to:a b c Tsygankov, Andrei (4 July 2015). “Vladimir Putin’s last stand: the sources of Russia’s Ukraine policy”. Post-Soviet Affairs31 (4): 279–303. doi:10.1080/1060586x.2015.1005903ISSN 1060-586X.
  166. Jump up^ Patrick J. McDonnell; W.J. Hennigan; Nabih Bulos (30 September 2015). “Russia Launches Airstrikes in Syria Amid U.S. Concern About Targets”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  167. Jump up^ “Clashes between Syrian troops, insurgents intensify in Russian-backed offensive”U.S. News & World Report. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  168. Jump up^ Dearden, Lizzie (8 October 2015). “Syrian army general says new ground offensive backed by Russian air strikes will ‘eliminate terrorists'”The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  169. Jump up^ “Syria conflict: Russia’s Putin orders ‘main part’ of forces out”BBC World Service. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  170. Jump up^ “Новости :: Генштаб ВС РФ объявил о новых авиаударах по террористам в Сирии”. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  171. Jump up^ Full Megyn Kelly-Vladimir Putin exchange on Russian interference in U.S. election“. YouTube. 2. 6. 2017.
  172. Jump up^ “Background to ‘Assessing Russian Activities in Recent US Elections’: The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution”. Office of the Director of National Intelligence and National Intelligence Council. 6 January 2016. p. 11. Retrieved 8 January 2017 – via The New York Times. (Subscription required (help)). We assess with high confidence that Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election, the consistent goals of which were to undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency. We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear preference for President-elect Trump.
  173. Jump up^ Filipov, David (23 December 2016). “Putin to Democratic Party: You lost, get over it”The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 July 2017Don’t be sore losers. That was how Putin answered a question Friday at his nationally televised annual news conference about whether Russia interfered in the U.S. presidential election in favor of Donald Trump. The Democrats ‘are losing on all fronts and looking elsewhere for things to blame,’ he told the nearly 1,400 journalists packed into a Moscow convention hall for the nearly four-hour event. ‘In my view, this, how shall I say it, degrades their own dignity. You have to know how to lose with dignity.’
  174. Jump up^ Walker, Shaun (30 March 2017). “‘Read my lips – no’: Putin denies Russian meddling in US presidential election”The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2017‘Read my lips—no,’ the Russian president answered when asked whether Russia had tried to influence the vote. He emphasized the denial by saying ‘no’ in English.
  175. Jump up^ Fahrenthold, David A. (4 June 2017). “Putin calls U.S. election-meddling charge a ‘load of nonsense’ in Megyn Kelly interview”The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 July 2017‘There’s a theory that Kennedy’s assassination was arranged by the United States intelligence services. So, if this theory is correct—and that can’t be ruled out—’ then the same agencies could fabricate evidence of Russian hacking, Putin said.
  176. Jump up^ Liptak, Kevin (8 July 2017). “Trump officials decline to rebut Russia’s claims that Trump seemed to accept election denials”. CNN. Retrieved 21 July 2017Top advisers to President Donald Trump declined three times on Saturday to rebut claims from Russian officials that Trump had accepted their denials of alleged Russian interference in the US election. … Russian President Vladimir Putin … told reporters that Trump appeared to accept his assertion that Russia did not meddle in the US presidential contest.
  177. Jump up^ “Putin: ‘Does Anyone Seriously Imagine Russia Can Somehow Influence the American People’s Choice?”CNS News. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2017Does anyone seriously imagine that Russia can somehow influence the American people’s choice? America is not some kind of banana republic after all but is a great power. Do correct me if I am wrong.
  178. Jump up^ “Megyn Kelly Drills Vladimir Putin on Presidential Election Hack, Russia’s Ties With Trump (Video)”Yahoo News. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017Presidents come and go, and even the parties in power change, but the main political direction does not change. That’s why, in the grand scheme of things, we don’t care who’s the head of the United States. We know more or less what is going to happen. And so in this regard, even if we wanted to, it wouldn’t make sense for us to interfere.
  179. Jump up^ “Muted Western reaction to Putin victory”BBC News. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  180. Jump up^ “Когда будет инаугурация президента РФ?” Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  181. Jump up^ World Freedom Foundation (2015). Vladimir Putin – Direct Speech Without Cuts. p. 44. ISBN 978-1329390928.
  182. Jump up^ White, Stephen (2010). “Classifying Russia’s Politics”. In White, Stephen. Developments in Russian Politics 7. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-22449-0.
  183. Jump up^ R. Sakwa, Putin: Russia’s Choice, 2008, p. 42-43
  184. Jump up^ Okara, Andrei (July–September 2007). “Sovereign Democracy: A New Russian Idea Or a PR Project?” (PDF). Russia in Global Affairs5 (3). Archived from the original(PDF) on 10 April 2016.
  185. Jump up^ Petrov, Nikolai (December 2005). “From Managed Democracy to Sovereign Democracy” (PDF). Center for Political-Geographic Research.
  186. Jump up^ Surkov, Vladislav (7 February 2006). “Sovereignty is a Political Synonym of Competitiveness”. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  187. Jump up^ Lynch, Dov (2005). “The enemy is at the gate”: Russia after BeslanInternational Affairs 81 (1), 141–161.
  188. Jump up^ Putin tightens grip on securityBBC News, 13 September 2004.
  189. Jump up^ “Президентское фильтрование губернаторов оценили политики”. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  190. Jump up^ Kramer, Andrew E. (22 April 2007). “50% Good News Is the Bad News in Russian Radio”The New York Times. Russia. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  191. Jump up^ Masha Lipman; Anders Aslund (2 December 2004). “Russian Media Criticism of Vladimir Putin: Evidence and Significance”. Retrieved 2 March2010.
  192. Jump up^ “State Duma Approves Liberal Political Reforms”. RIA Novosti. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  193. Jump up^ “Arkady Rotenberg”Forbes. 2013. Retrieved 23 December2013.
  194. Jump up^ Sharlet, Robert (2005). “In Search of the Rule of Law”. In White, Gitelman, Sakwa. Developments in Russian Politics6. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3522-1.
  195. Jump up^ “Report for Selected Countries and Subjects”. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  196. Jump up to:a b c d “Russia’s economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures”. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  197. Jump up^ Malofeeva, Katya; Brenton, Tim (15 August 2007). “Putin’s Economy – Eight Years On”. Russia Profile. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  198. Jump up^ “Основные Социально-Экономические Индикаторы Уровня Жизни Населения”. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  199. Jump up^ Iikka. Korhonen et al. The challenges of the Medvedev eraArchived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Bank of Finland’s Institute for Economies in Transition, 24 June 2008.
  200. Jump up^ Zvereva, Polina (11 October 2009). “State-sponsored consolidation”Russia & CIS Observer3 (26).
  201. Jump up^ “ANNUAL REPORT of Joint Stock Company United Aircraft Corporation for 2009” (PDF). Moscow: United Aircraft Corporation. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 August 2013.
  202. Jump up^ Russia builds nuclear power stations all over the world at
  203. Jump up^ Richard Galpin (22 September 2010). “The struggle for Arctic riches”BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  204. Jump up^ Peter Fairley (2 July 2010). “Russia Launches Floating Nuclear Power Plant”. IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 28 August2011.
  205. Jump up^ “Prirazlmonaya sea platform to be delivered to offshore oil field”. Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 26 August 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  206. Jump up^ Andrew Kramer (30 August 2011). “Exxon Reaches Arctic Oil Deal With Russians”The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  207. Jump up^ “China and Russia sign $400 billion 30-year gas deal”Russia Herald. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  208. Jump up^ “OCCRP 2014 Person of the Year”. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  209. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin named Person of the Year for ‘innovation’ in ‘organised crime'”International Business Times. 3 January 2015.
  210. Jump up^ “When will Russia become the world’s fifth biggest economy? Don’t ask Vladimir Putin”Meduza. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  211. Jump up^ Kitroeff, Natalie Natalie; Weisenthal, Joe (16 December 2014). “Here’s Why the Russian Ruble Is Collapsing”. Bloomberg.
  212. Jump up^ “Sanctions boost Russian economic resilience”. Deutsche Welle. 24 March 2017. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017.
  213. Jump up^ “How the Sanctions Are Helping Putin”. Politico.
  214. Jump up^ “Russia signs deals with China to help weather sanctions”. CNBC. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  215. Jump up^ The New York Times. 6 November 2004. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
  216. Jump up^ Tony Johnson. “G8’s Gradual Move toward Post-Kyoto Climate Change Policy”. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  217. Jump up^ THE AMUR TIGER PROGRAMME Archived 22 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  218. Jump up^ THE WHITE WHALE PROGRAMME Archived 13 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  219. Jump up^ THE POLAR BEAR PROGRAMME Archived 13 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  220. Jump up^ THE SNOW LEOPARD PROGRAMME Archived 13 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  221. Jump up^ Bell, I (2002). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central AsiaISBN 978-1-85743-137-7. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  222. Jump up^ A religion for the nation or a nation for the religion: Putin’s third way for Russia, Beth Admiraal, in Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia, edited by Marlène Laruelle, (Routledge, 2009)
  223. Jump up^ “Bethlehem street named after Putin”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 22 June2013.
  224. Jump up^ “he President of Russia attended the ceremonial signing of the Act on Canonical Communion that was held in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour” (Press release). Embassy of Russia in Ottawa. 17 May 2007. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  225. Jump up^ No love lost, Yossi Mehlman, Haaretz, 11 December 2005
  226. Jump up^ Phyllis Berman Lea Goldman, (15 September 2003). “Cracked De Beers”Forbes
  227. Jump up^ Krichevksy, Lev (10 October 2011). “”In Putin’s return, Russian Jews see stability”. Jewish Telegraphic Agency”The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  228. Jump up^ “Ronald S. Lauder: Russia’s fight against anti-Semitism isn’t just good for Jews – it’s good for Russia as well”World Jewish Congress. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November2016.
  229. Jump up^ Начало встречи с Министром обороны Анатолием Сердюковым [Start of the meeting with Defence Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov] (in Russian). 5 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008.
  230. Jump up^ Guy Faulconbridge Russian navy to start sorties in Mediterranean. Reuters. 5 December 2007.
  231. Jump up^ “Military reform to change army structure. What about its substance?”. RIA Novosti. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 7 May2012.
  232. Jump up^ Kristensen, Hans M. “New START Data Released: Nuclear Flatlining.”FAS, 3 October 2012.
  233. Jump up^ William J. Broad (19 February 2008). “Russia’s Claim Under Polar Ice Irks American”The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  234. Jump up^ Adrian Blomfield (11 June 2008). “Russia plans Arctic military build-up”The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 27 July2011.
  235. Jump up^ Mia Bennett (4 July 2011). “Russia, Like Other Arctic States, Solidifies Northern Military Presence”. Foreign Policy Association. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  236. Jump up^ “Laws of Attrition: Crackdown on Russia’s Civil Society after Putin’s Return to the Presidency,” Human Rights Watch pdf report 24 April 2013
  237. Jump up^ Russia: Worst Human Rights Climate in Post-Soviet Era, Unprecedented Crackdown on Civil Society Human Rights Watch Summary 24 April 2013
  238. Jump up^ North, Andrew (4 May 2016). “‘We’ll cut off your head’: open season for LGBT attacks in Kyrgyzstan”The GuardianISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  239. Jump up^ Luhn, Alec (1 September 2013). “Russian anti-gay law prompts rise in homophobic violence”The GuardianISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  240. Jump up^ Keating, Joshua (9 October 2014). “The Chilling Effects of Russia’s Anti-Gay Law, One Year Later”SlateISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  241. Jump up^ “Russia’s LGBT Youth Victimized by ‘Gay Propaganda’ Law”. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  242. Jump up^ Scott Gehlbach, “Reflections on Putin and the Media”. Post-Soviet Affairs 26#1 (2010): 77–87
  243. Jump up^ Maria Lipman, “How Putin Silences Dissent: Inside the Kremlin’s Crackdown”. Foreign Affairs 95#1 (2016): 38.
  244. Jump up^ Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan, The Red Web: The Struggle Between Russia’s Digital Dictators and the New Online Revolutionaries (2015).
  245. Jump up^ Marian K. Leighton, “Muzzling the Russian Media Again.” (2016): 820–826.
  246. Jump up^ Robert W. Orttung and Christopher Walker, “Putin and Russia’s crippled media”. Russian Analytical Digest 21.123 (2013): 2–6 online Archived 16 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  247. Jump up^ Levin, Eve (Fall 2011). “Muscovy and Its Mythologies”. Kritika: Explorations in Russian & Eurasian History12 (4): 773–788. doi:10.1353/kri.2011.0058.
  248. Jump up^ Sergei Prozorov, “Russian conservatism in the Putin presidency: The dispersion of a hegemonic discourse.” Journal of Political Ideologies 10#2 (2005): 121–143.
  249. Jump up^ Marlene Laruelle, “The Izborsky Club, or the New Conservative Avant‐Garde in Russia.” Russian Review 75#4 (2016): 626–644.
  250. Jump up^ Sirke Mäkinen, “Surkovian narrative on the future of Russia: making Russia a world leader.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27#2 (2011): 143–165.
  251. Jump up^ Julia Gerlach and Jochen Töpfer, eds. (2014). The Role of Religion in Eastern Europe Today. Springer. p. 135. ISBN 9783658024413.
  252. Jump up^ Myers (2016). The New Tsar. p. 404. ISBN 9780345802798.
  253. Jump up^ Mark Woods, “How the Russian Orthodox Church is backing Vladimir Putin’s new world order” Christian Today 3 March 2016
  254. Jump up^ Andrew Higgins, “In Expanding Russian Influence, Faith Combines With Firepower,” New York Times Sept 13, 2016
  255. Jump up^ “Sochi speech” 2007. Archived from the original (WMV) on 10 July 2007.
  256. Jump up^ Sochi 2014: Putin declares gay athletes welcome“, BBC (28 October 2013).
  257. Jump up^ “Russian Geographical Society”. Russian Geographical Society. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  258. Jump up^ Vladimir Putin (24 December 2012). “For Russia, deepening friendship with India is a top foreign policy priority by President Vladimir Putin”The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  259. Jump up^ “India, Russia sign new defence deals”. BBC. 24 December 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  260. Jump up^ Rajeev Sharma, specially for RIR (24 December 2012). “13th Indo-Russian Summit reaffirms time-tested ties: Russia & India Report”. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  261. Jump up^ Page, Jeremy (26 September 2010). “Russian Oil Route Will Open to China”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  262. Jump up to:a b “Press Statement following the Peace Mission 2007 Counterterrorism Exercises and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summit”. 17 August 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008.
  263. Jump up^ Russia restores Soviet-era strategic bomber patrols, 17 August 2007, RIA Novosti, Russia.
  264. Jump up^ SCO Scares NATO, 8 August 2007, Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  265. Jump up^ Russia Over Three Oceans, 20 August 2007, “Chas”, Latvia. Archived 8 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  266. Jump up^ Polish head rejects Putin attackBBC News (24 December 2004)
  267. Jump up to:a b Q&A: Russia-Ukraine gas rowBBC News (20 January 2009).
  268. Jump up^ Playing East against West: The success of the Eastern Partnership depends on Ukraine“. The Economist. 23 November 2013.
  269. Jump up^ Ukraine’s parliament votes to abandon Nato ambitionsBBC News (3 June 2010)
  270. Jump up^ “After Russian Invasion of Georgia, Putin’s Words Stir Fears about Ukraine”Kyiv Post (30 November 2010)
  271. Jump up^ Bohm, M. Ukraine Is Putin’s Favorite VassalThe Moscow Times. 25 December 2013
  272. Jump up^ Walker, Shaun (4 March 2014). “Russian takeover of Crimea will not descend into war, says Vladimir Putin”The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  273. Jump up^ Yoon, Sangwon; Krasnolutska, Daryna; Choursina, Kateryna (4 March 2014). “Russia Stays in Ukraine as Putin Channels Yanukovych Request”Bloomberg News. Retrieved 5 March2014.
  274. Jump up^ Radyuhin, Vladimir (1 March 2014). “Russian Parliament approves use of army in Ukraine”The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  275. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin signs treaty for Russia to take Crimea from Ukraine – video”The Guardian. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  276. Jump up to:a b “Russia President Vladimir Putin signs treaty to annex Crimea after residents vote to leave Ukraine”. CBS News. 18 March 2014.
  277. Jump up^ “Has Vladimir Putin blinked over Ukraine?”. Daily Telegraph. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  278. Jump up^ Putin says Russians and Ukrainians ‘practically one people’Reuters (29 August 2014)
  279. Jump up^ Putin: Ukrainian Literature Library must not be lost in any circumstancesInterfax-Ukraine (26 December 2015)
  280. Jump up^ “Russia and Eurasia”. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  281. Jump up^ “Day-by-day: Georgia-Russia crisis”BBC News. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  282. Jump up^ New Integration Project for Eurasia – A Future That Is Being Born TodayIzvestiya (3 October 2011)
  283. Jump up^ Bryanski, Gleb (3 October 2011). “Russia’s Putin says wants to build “Eurasian Union””Yahoo! NewsReuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October2011.
  284. Jump up^ Kilner, James (6 October 2011). “Kazakhstan welcomes Putin’s Eurasian Union concept”The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  285. Jump up^ “Russia sees union with Belarus and Kazakhstan by 2015”BBC News. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  286. Jump up^ “Ru-ru”. Eurasian Economic Union. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  287. Jump up to:a b c America’s Failed (Bi-Partisan) Russia Policy by Stephen F. CohenHuffPost
  288. Jump up to:a b c d Stuermer, Michael (2008). Putin and the Rise of Russia. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 55, 57 & 192. ISBN 9780297855101. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  289. Jump up^ “Interview for Indian Television Channel Doordarshan and Press Trust of India News Agency”. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  290. Jump up to:a b “Speech and the Following Discussion at the Munich Conference on Security Policy (43rd Munich Conference on Security Policy)”. 10 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
  291. Jump up^ Watson, Rob (10 February 2007). “Putin’s speech: Back to cold war? Putin’s speech: Back to cold war?”. BBC.
  292. Jump up^ “Munich Conference on Security Policy, As Delivered by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, 11 February 2007”. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  293. Jump up^ “Press Conference following the end of the G8 Summit”. 8 June 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  294. Jump up^ “Russia walks away from CFE arms treaty” 12 December 2007. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  295. Jump up^ “EU’s Solana rejects Putin’s criticism over Kosovo’s independence”. IRNA. 23 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  296. Jump up^ “Putin: supports for Kosovo unilateral independence “immoral, illegal””. Xinhua News Agency. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  297. Jump up^ “Putin: Kosovo case terrible precedent”. Press TV. 22 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  298. Jump up^ Simpson, Emma (16 January 2006). “Merkel cools Berlin Moscow ties”BBC News. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  299. Jump up^ “Subscribe to read”Financial Times.
  300. Jump up^ “Putin pays late-night visit to ‘old friend’ Berlusconi”. 17 October 2014.
  301. Jump up^ Shuster, Simon. “The World According to Putin,” Time 16 September 2013, pp 30–35
  302. Jump up^ “Battle for Ukraine: How the west lost Putin”Financial Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  303. Jump up^ U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8, CNN
  304. Jump up^ “Russia Temporarily Kicked Out of G8 Club of Rich Countries”. Business Insider. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  305. Jump up^ Russian President Vladimir Putin says ‘only an insane person’ would fear Russian attack on NATO“. Daily News. 7 June 2015.
  306. Jump up^ “Putin Congratulates Trump on Victory and Hopeful of Better Ties”. Bloomberg L.P. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 18 May2017.
  307. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin likely gave go-ahead for U.S. cyberattack, intelligence officials say”. CBS News. Retrieved 18 May2017.
  308. Jump up^ Englund, Will (28 July 2016). “The roots of the hostility between Putin and Clinton”The Washington Post.
  309. Jump up^ “The top four reasons Vladimir Putin might have a grudge against Hillary Clinton”National Post. 16 December 2016.
  310. Jump up^ “Why Putin hates Hillary”Politico. 26 July 2016.
  311. Jump up^ “Putin’s Image Rises in US, Mostly Among Republicans”. Gallup. 21 February 2017.
  312. Jump up^ “US-Russia relations fail to improve in Trump’s first year and they are likely to get worse”The Independent. 19 January 2018.
  313. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin says US-Russia relations are worse since Donald Trump took office”The Independent. 12 April 2017.
  314. Jump up to:a b c Gonzalo Vina & Sebastian Alison (20 July 2007). “Brown Defends Russian Expulsions, Decries Killings”. Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  315. Jump up^ “UK spied on Russians with fake rock”BBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  316. Jump up^ “Full Report of the Litvinenko Inquiry”The New York Times. 21 January 2016.
  317. Jump up^ Dunkerley, William (5 February 2016). “Six reasons you can’t take the Litvinenko report seriously”The Guardian.
  318. Jump up^ Ward, Victoria; Rayner, Gordon; Whitehead, Tom (21 January 2016). “Litvinenko Inquiry: David Cameron considers new sanctions against Russia after ‘state-sponsored murder’ of KGB spy in London”The Daily Telegraph.
  319. Jump up^ Robert Owen (Chairman) (21 January 2016). The Litvinenko Inquiry. Report into the death of Alexander Litvinenko (PDF)(Report). ISBN 9781474127349.
  320. Jump up^ Dodd, Vikram; Harding, Luke; MacAskill, Ewen (8 March 2018). “Sergei Skripal: former Russian spy poisoned with nerve agent, say police”The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  321. Jump up^ Borger, Julian (15 March 2018). “Spy poisoning: allies back UK and blast Russia at UN security council”The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  322. Jump up^ Grierson, Jamie; Wintour, Patrick (17 March 2018). “Sergei Skripal: Russia expels 23 UK diplomats as row deepens”The Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  323. Jump up^ Fiona Hamilton, Tom Parfitt, Moscow | Sam Coates, Rhys Blakely, Lucy Fisher. “Johnson points finger at Putin for Salisbury spy attack”. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  324. Jump up^ Russia Forges Nuclear Links With Venezuela France 24 Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  325. Jump up^ “World – Americas – Russian bombers land in Venezuela”. BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  326. Jump up^ Tyler, Patrick (16 December 2000). “Putin, in Cuba, Signals Priority of Ties to U.S.” The New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  327. Jump up^ “Russia Courts Indonesia”. 12 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  328. Jump up^ Phillip Coorey (7 September 2007). “Putin and Howard Sign Uranium Deal”The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  329. Jump up^ Putin: Iran Has Right to Develop Peaceful Nuclear Programme, 16 October 2007,
  330. Jump up^ “Putin’s warning to the U.S.” Reuters. 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007.
  331. Jump up^ Владимир Путин положительно оценил итоги Второго Каспийского саммита на встрече с Президентом Ирана Махмудом Ахмадинежадом [Vladimir Putin assessed the results of the Second Caspian Summit positively on meeting with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad] (in Russian). 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008.
  332. Jump up^ Визит в Исламскую Республику Иран. Второй Каспийский саммит [Visit to Iran. Second Caspian Summit] (in Russian). 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008.
  333. Jump up^ Leonid Brezhnev travelled to shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi‘s Iran in 1963, but at that time he was not yet the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union“Putin confirms Iran visit, brushes off ‘plot’ reports”. Lebanon Wire. 15 October 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
  334. Jump up^ Vladimir Putin defies assassination threats to make historic visit to Tehran, 16 October 2007, The Times.
  335. Jump up^ “Answer to a Question at the Joint Press Conference Following the Second Caspian Summit”. 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008.
  336. Jump up^ “Putin’s visit ‘historic and strategic'”Gulf News. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  337. Jump up^ Parks, Cara (21 March 2011). “Putin: Military Intervention In Libya Resembles ‘Crusades'”HuffPost.
  338. Jump up^ “Putin states the West has no legal right to execute Gaddafi – RT”. Russia: RT. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  339. Jump up^ Crugnale, James (15 December 2011). “Vladimir Putin Blames US Drones For Gaddafi Death, Slams John McCain”. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  340. Jump up^ Citizen, Ottawa (16 December 2011). “Putin claims U.S. planned murder of Gadhafi”. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  341. Jump up^ Trenin, Dmitri (9 February 2012). “Why Russia Supports Assad”The New York Times.
  342. Jump up^ Fred Weir (19 January 2012). “Why Russia is willing to sell arms to Syria”The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  343. Jump up^ Viscusi, Gregory (1 June 2012). “Hollande Clashes With Putin Over Ouster of Syria’s Assad”Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  344. Jump up^ Putin, Vladimir V. (11 September 2013). “A Plea for Caution From Russia”The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September2013.
  345. Jump up^ “Putin says US, Russia agree on how to destroy Syria’s chemical weapons”The Jerusalem Post. 8 October 2013.
  346. Jump up^ Melik Kaylan. “Putin’s Syria Gambit Could Be His Waterloo”Forbes.
  347. Jump up^ Kaylan, Melik. “Is Putin About To Invade Ukraine?”Forbes.
  348. Jump up^ Pedler, John (2015). A Word Before Leaving: A Former Diplomat’s Weltanschauung. p. 129.
  349. Jump up to:a b “Vladimir Putin’s approval rating at record levels”The Guardian. 23 July 2015.
  350. Jump up^ Madslien, Jorn (4 July 2007). “Russia’s economic might: spooky or soothing?”BBC News. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  351. Jump up^ Arkhipov, Ilya (24 January 2013). “Putin Approval Rating Falls to Lowest Since 2000: Poll”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 June2013.
  352. Jump up^ “Putin’s Approval Rating Reaches Six-Year High – Poll”RIA Novosti. 15 May 2014.
  353. Jump up^ “Августовские рейтинги одобрения – Левада-Центр”. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014.
  354. Jump up^ “Putin’s Approval Rating Soars to 87%, Poll Says”The Moscow Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  355. Jump up^ “The world’s most popular politicians: Putin’s approval rating hits 86%”. Independent. 27 February 2015.
  356. Jump up^ “Июльские рейтинги одобрения и доверия” (in Russian). Levada Centre. 23 July 2015.
  357. Jump up^ “Putin’s approval ratings hit 89 percent, the highest they’ve ever been”The Washington Post. 24 June 2015.
  358. Jump up^ Inc., Gallup,. “Economic Problems, Corruption Fail to Dent Putin’s Image” Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  359. Jump up^ “Successful World Cup fails to halt slide in Vladimir Putin’s popularity”The Guardian. 16 July 2018.
  360. Jump up^ “Why Putin’s approval rating is falling”Al-Jazeera. 13 July 2018.
  361. Jump up^ “Quarter of Russians Think Living Standards Improved During Putin’s Rule” (in Russian). Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  362. Jump up^ No wonder they like Putin by Norman Stone, 4 December 2007, The Times.
  363. Jump up^ Inc., Gallup,. “Economic Problems, Corruption Fail to Dent Putin’s Image” Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  364. Jump up^ “Alexei Navalny: Is Russia’s Anti-Corruption Crusader Vladimir Putin’s Kryptonite?”Newsweek. Retrieved 7 June2017.
  365. Jump up^ Акции протеста 12 июня“. Levada Centre. 13 June 2017
  366. Jump up^ “Democrats rally around Clinton and paint Trump as unfit for office”The Washington Post. 9 September 2016.
  367. Jump up^ “Mike Pence says it’s ‘inarguable’ that Putin is a stronger leader than Obama”The Washington Post. 8 September 2016.
  368. Jump up^ Bershidsky, Leonid (5 October 2016). “Trump and Pence Play Good Cop, Bad Cop on Putin”Bloomberg.
  369. Jump up^ “15 Years of Vladimir Putin: 15 Ways He Has Changed Russia and the World”The Guardian. 6 May 2015.
  370. Jump up^ Garry Kasparov. “Garry Kasparov: How the United States and Its Western Allies Propped Up Putin”The Atlantic. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  371. Jump up^ “Hillary Clinton Describes Relationship With Putin: ‘It’s… interesting'”Politico. 17 January 2016. Retrieved 14 April2016.
  372. Jump up^ “Hillary Clinton: Putin is Arrogant and Tough”. GPS with Fareed Zakaria. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2016 – via YouTube.
  373. Jump up^ “President Vladimir Putin on Sec. Hillary Clinton”. CNN. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  374. Jump up^ “Dalai Lama attacks ‘self-centered’ Vladimir Putin”The Daily Telegraph. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  375. Jump up^ Henry Kissinger (5 March 2014). “How The Ukraine Crisis Ends”The Washington Post.
  376. Jump up to:a b “Mikhail Gorbachev claims Vladimir Putin saved Russia from falling apart”International Business Times. 27 December 2014.
  377. Jump up^ Struck, Doug (5 December 2007). “Gorbachev Applauds Putin’s Achievements”The Washington Post.
  378. Jump up^ “Decoding Vladimir Putin’s Plan”U.S. News & World Report. 5 January 2015.
  379. Jump up^ State Building in Putin’s Russia: Policing and Coercion after Communism p. 278, Brian D. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  380. Jump up^ “Russia | Country report | Freedom in the World | 2005” Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  381. Jump up^ “Russia Downgraded to ‘Not Free’ | Freedom House” Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  382. Jump up^ “Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety”(PDF).
  383. Jump up^ Kekic, Laza. “Index of democracy by Economist Intelligence Unit” (PDF). The Economist. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  384. Jump up^ Diamond, Larry (1 January 2015). “Facing Up to the Democratic Recession”Journal of Democracy26 (1): 141–155. doi:10.1353/jod.2015.0009ISSN 1086-3214.
  385. Jump up^ Bass, Sadie (5 August 2009). “Putin Bolsters Tough Guy Image With Shirtless Photos, Australian Broadcasting Corporation”. ABC News. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  386. Jump up to:a b c Rawnsley, Adam (26 May 2011). “Pow! Zam! Nyet! ‘Superputin’ Battles Terrorists, Protesters in Online Comic”Wired. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  387. Jump up to:a b c “Putin gone wild: Russia abuzz over pics of shirtless leader”. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Associated Press. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  388. Jump up to:a b Vladimir Putin diving discovery was staged, spokesman admitsThe Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 March 2012
  389. Jump up^ “Russians smell something fishy in Putin’s latest stunt”. Reuters. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  390. Jump up^ Kavic, Boris; Novak, Marja; Gaunt, Jeremy (8 March 2016). “Slovenian comedian rocks with Putin parody; Trump to follow”. Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  391. Jump up^ “A senile Putin becomes a parody of his own parody – The Spectator”The Spectator. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 18 May2017.
  392. Jump up^ “Let Putin be your fitness inspiration hero”The Guardian. 2015.
  393. Jump up to:a b 7 Reasons Vladimir Putin Is the World’s Craziest Badass
  394. Jump up^ Организаторы сафари для Путина объяснились по поводу “подставы с тигром”: “Кому-то что-то показалось”
  395. Jump up^ Putin attaches satellite tag to tranquilized polar bear in Russia’s Arctic Fox News Channel
  396. Jump up^ “Finland Accidentally Bans Putin”3 News NZ. 11 April 2013.
  397. Jump up^ “Using crossbow, Putin fires darts at whale”MSNBC. 26 August 2010.
  398. Jump up^ “Премьер-гонка: Владимир Путин протестировал болид “Формулы-1″”. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 7 May2012.
  399. Jump up^ Путин погрузился с аквалангом на дно Таманского залива
  400. Jump up^ Vladimir Putin leads endangered cranes on migration route in hang glider The Guardian
  401. Jump up^ “Russians smell something fishy in Putin’s latest stunt”. Reuters. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  402. Jump up^ “Putin’s Big Fish Story Leaves Russians in Doubt”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  403. Jump up^ “Песни про Путина” 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  404. Jump up^ Чернокожие рэперы записали трек в поддержку Владимира Путина (in Russian). LifeNews. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  405. Jump up^ ВВП on YouTube
  406. Jump up^ WATCH: No One In Russia Can Work Out If This Pro-Putin Dance-Pop Song Is Sincere — Or Satire Archived 7 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  407. Jump up^ “Russia Protest Song: Veterans Rock Anti-Putin Rally With A Catchy Tune”HuffPost. 5 February 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  408. Jump up^ Дарья Зайцева (20 June 2014). “Экскурс в историю одной кричалки, или подробнее о том, что значит смех без причины” Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  409. Jump up^ National Geographic Music News (7 December 2009). “PBS Launches New Global Music Series”National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  410. Jump up^ Как используется бренд “Путин”: зажигалки, икра, футболки, консервированный перец Gazeta 30 November 2007.
  411. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin’s advisor found dead”. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  412. Jump up^ “Person of the Year 2007”Time. 2007. Retrieved 8 July2009.
  413. Jump up^ “Putin Answers Questions From Time Magazine”. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2016 – via YouTube.
  414. Jump up^ Druzhinin, Alexei (14 April 2015). “Vladimir Putin Steals The Show in TIME 100 Magazine Reader’s Poll”. Russia Today (RT). Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  415. Jump up^ Albright, Madeleine (23 April 2014). “Vladimir Putin – The Russian Leader Who Truly Tests The West”. Time Magazine, USA. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  416. Jump up^ Sharkov, Damien (20 April 2016). “Putin Is a ‘Smart But Truly Evil Man,’ says Madeleine Albright”Newsweek, USA. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  417. Jump up^ “The World’s Most Powerful People 2016”Forbes. 14 December 2016. For the fourth consecutive year, Forbes ranked Russian President Vladimir Putin as the world’s most powerful person. From the motherland to Syria to the U.S. presidential elections, Russia’s leader continues to get what he wants.
  418. Jump up to:a b Sukhotsky, Cyril (5 March 2004), Путинизмы – “продуманный личный эпатаж”? [Putinism – “Thoughtful personal outrageous”?] (in Russian), BBC Russian, retrieved 29 January 2017
  419. Jump up^ Kharatyan, Kirill (25 December 2012), Кирилл Харатьян: Жаргон Владимира Путина [Vladimir Putin’s Jargon], Ведомости ( (in Russian), retrieved 29 January2017
  420. Jump up^ “Russian President Vladimir Putin Visits Taj Mahal, Agra, India”The Associated Press – Video Archives. The Associated Press, USA. 4 October 2000. Retrieved 22 March2017.
  421. Jump up^ “Russian President Vladimir Putin Visits Taj Mahal, Agra, India”. The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. 4 October 2000. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  422. Jump up^ Sakwa, Richard (2007). Putin: Russia’s Choice (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1134133451.
  423. Jump up^ “Russia President Vladimir Putin’s Divorce Finalized”BBC News. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  424. Jump up^ Allen, Cooper (2 April 2014). “Putin Divorce Finalized, Kremlin says”USA Today.
  425. Jump up^ MacFarquahar, Neil (13 March 2015). “Putin Has Vanished, but Rumors Are Popping Up Everywhere”. The New York Times, USA. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  426. Jump up^ Wile, Rob (23 January 2017). “Is Vladimir Putin Secretly the Richest Man in the World?”. Time Magazine, USA. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  427. Jump up^ Taylor, Adam (20 February 2015). “Is Vladimir Putin Hiding a $200 Billion Fortune? (And If So, Does It Matter?)”The Washington Post, USA. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  428. Jump up^ “Quote.Rbc.Ru :: Аюмй Яюмйр-Оерепаспц – Юйжхх, Ярпсйрспю, Мнбнярх, Тхмюмяш”. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  429. Jump up^ ЦИК зарегистрировал список “ЕР” Rossiyskaya GazetaN 4504 27 October 2007
  430. Jump up^ ЦИК раскрыл доходы Путина Vzglyad 26 October 2007
  431. Jump up^ “Is Vladimir Putin the richest man on earth?” 26 September 2013.
  432. Jump up^ Gennadi Timchenko: Russia’s most low-profile billionaireSobesednik № 10, 7 March 2007
  433. Jump up^ Harding, Luke (21 December 2007). “Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune”The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  434. Jump up^ “Is Vladimir Putin hiding a $200 billion fortune? (And if so, does it matter?)”The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March2017.
  435. Jump up to:a b “Прямая линия с Владимиром Путиным состоится 14 апреля в 12 часов” (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  436. Jump up to:a b Luke Harding (3 April 2016). “Revealed: the $2bn offshore trail that leads to Vladimir Putin”The Guardian. London.
  437. Jump up^ Der Zirkel der Macht von Vladimir Putin, Süddeutsche Zeitung
  438. Jump up^ Wladimir Putin und seine Freunde, Süddeutsche Zeitung
  439. Jump up^ Revealed: the $2bn offshore trail that leads to Vladimir PutinThe Guardian
  440. Jump up^ “All Putin’s Men: Secret Records Reveal Money Network Tied to Russian Leader” Retrieved 4 April2016.
  441. Jump up^ “Panama Papers: Putin associates linked to ‘money laundering'”BBC News. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  442. Jump up^ Galeotti, Mark (4 April 2016). “The Panama Papers show how corruption really works in Russia”. Vox Business and Finance. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  443. Jump up^ “Panama Papers: Putin rejects corruption allegations”. BBC. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  444. Jump up^ Harding, Luke (4 April 2016). “Kremlin dismisses revelations in Panama Papers as ‘Putinphobia'”The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  445. Jump up^ Solovyova, Olga (5 March 2012). “Russian Leaders Not Swapping Residences”. The Moscow Times, Russia. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  446. Jump up^ “Тайна за семью заборами”. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  447. Jump up^ Elder, Miriam (28 August 2012). “Vladimir Putin ‘Galley Slave’ Lifestyle: Palaces, Planes and a $75,000 Toilet”The Guardian, UK. London, UK. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  448. Jump up^ How the 1980s Explains Vladimir Putin. The Ozero group.By Fiona Hill & Clifford G. Gaddy, The Atlantic, 14 February 2013
  449. Jump up^ Foreign, Our (3 March 2011). “‘Putin Palace’ Sells for US$350 Million”The Daily Telegraph, UK. London, UK. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  450. Jump up^ “Putin’s Palace? A Mystery Black Sea Mansion Fit for a Tsar”. BBC, UK. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  451. Jump up^ “President’s Pet: Putin’s New Kyrgyz Race Horse and His Other Fauna Interactions”. Russia: RT. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  452. Jump up^ “Pup-lover Putin Gifted New Dog for 65th Birthday”. Russia: CNN. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  453. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin’s Christian Faith – In His Own Words”. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2016 – via YouTube.
  454. Jump up to:a b Timothy J. Colton; Michael MacFaul (2003). Popular Choice and Managed Democracy: the Russian elections of 1999 and 2000. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution.
  455. Jump up^ Putin Q&A: Full Transcript Time. Retrieved 22 March 2008
  456. Jump up^ “Putin and the monk”FT Magazine. 25 January 2013.
  457. Jump up^ “Putin spricht Deutsch / Putin speaks German 1/3”YouTube. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  458. Jump up^ Wagner, Hans (30 June 2006). “Das Konfliktpotential mit den USA wächst (German)”. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
  459. Jump up^ Kremlin Chief of Staff Surprised but Not Alarmed by Navalny, The Moscow Times, 2 October 2013.
  460. Jump up^ “Kremlin Biography of President Vladimir Putin”. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  461. Jump up^ Д.Медведев призвал россиян активнее играть в бадминтон (in Russian). Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  462. Jump up^ “Putin to talk pipeline, attend football game”B92. 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  463. Jump up^ “Bandy, how little known sport is winning converts”. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  464. Jump up^ Vladimir Putin: the NPR interview US radio station National Public Radio New York (15 November 2001)
  465. Jump up^ [1] Putin awarded eighth dan by international body by Reuters
  466. Jump up^ “Black-Belt President Putin: A Man of Gentle Arts” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.
  467. Jump up^ Putin, Vladimir; Vasily Shestakov; Alexey Levitsky (July 2004). Judo: History, Theory, PracticeBlue Snake BooksISBN 978-1-55643-445-7.
  468. Jump up^ “Is Vladimir Putin a judo fraud?”The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  469. Jump up^ “I’ll Fight Putin Any Time, Any Place He Can’t Have Me Arrested”Lawfare. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 18 July2017.
  470. Jump up^ “Raul Castro Welcomes Russian President Vladimir Putin”. Escambray. 11 July 2014.
  471. Jump up^ “Putin receives Serbia’s top state decoration”. B92. 16 October 2014.
  472. Jump up^ “Ordonnance Souveraine n° 4.504 du 4 octobre 2013 portant élévation dans l’Ordre de Saint-Charles” (in French). Journal de Monaco. 4 October 2013.
  473. Jump up^ Sanchez, Fabiola (2 April 2010). “Russia offers Venezuela nuclear help, Chavez says”The Seattle Times.
  474. Jump up^ Putin Receives Top UAE’s Decoration, Order of Zayed,, 10 September 2007
  475. Jump up^ Atul Aneja Putin goes calling on the SaudisThe Hindu. 20 February 2007
  476. Jump up^ “CSTO: SAFE CHOICE IN CENTRAL ASIA”. Eurasia Daily Monitor4 (191). 2007.
  477. Jump up^ (in French) Video Chirac décore Poutine
  478. Jump up^ “Alexy II is awarded the highest Muslim Order”. Interfax-Religion. 4 July 2006.
  479. Jump up^ “Орден Шейх-уль-ислама” (in Russian). Управление Мусульман Кавказа. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  480. Jump up^ Первый Президент Республики Казахстан Нурсултан Назарбаев Хроника деятельности 2004 год (PDF) (in Russian). Astana. 2009. p. 15. ISBN 978-601-80044-3-8Президент также подписал указы “О награждении орденом “Алтын ыран” (Золотой орел) Путина В.В.”…
  481. Jump up^ “Вьетнам: Наш президент круче американского. Путину – орден Хо Ши Мина. Нас там пока любят” (in Russian). Аргументы и Факты. 7 March 2001.
  482. Jump up^ “Putin becomes first foreign leader to get China’s Order of Friendship”. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 19 June2018.
  483. Jump up^ “B92 News: Belgrade University to award Putin honorary doctorate”. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  484. Jump up^ “Putin receives honorary doctorate from Athens University”. Athens News Agency. 7 December 2001.
  485. Jump up^ “Putin Concludes Visit to Armenia Lays Wreath at Genocide Monument”. Asbarez. 17 September 2001.
  486. Jump up^ “Pope Francis meets Putin for a diplomatically difficult talk”. Religion News Service. 10 June 2015.
  487. Jump up^ “Vatican says Pope meant no offense calling Abbas ‘angel of peace'”. Reuters. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  488. Jump up^ “Vladimir Putin in China Confucius Peace Prize fiasco”. BBC. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  489. Jump up^ Wong, Edward (15 November 2011). “In China, Confucius Prize Awarded to Putin”The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  490. Jump up^ Парламент Киргизии присвоил горной вершине имя Путина. 17 February 2011
  491. Jump up^ “В Грозном появился проспект имени Путина” Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  492. Jump up^ “Глобальный игрок. Expert magazine. № 48 (589) 24 December 2007″. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  493. Jump up^ “Person of the Year 2007”Time. 2007. Retrieved 8 July2009.

Further reading

External video
 Presentation by Masha Gessen on The Man Without a Face, March 8, 2012C-SPAN

External links

Personal links

Political links

News links

Leave a Reply