Biography of Spiritual Leaders

Deepak Chopra

Deepak Chopra


Born October 22, 1946 (age 71)[1]
New DelhiBritish India
Citizenship American[2]
Alma mater All India Institute of Medical SciencesNew Delhi
Occupation Alternative medicine advocate, public speaker, writer
Spouse(s) Rita Chopra
Children Mallika Chopra and Gotham Chopra
Parent(s) Krishan Chopra, Pushpa Chopra
Relatives Sanjiv Chopra (brother)
Website Official website Edit this at Wikidata

Deepak Chopra (/ˈdpɑːk ˈprə/Hindustani: [d̪iːpək tʃoːpraː]; born October 22, 1946) is an Indian-born American author, public speaker, alternative medicine advocate, and a prominent figure in the New Age movement.[3][4][5] Through his books and videos, he has become one of the best-known and wealthiest figures in alternative medicine.[6]

Chopra studied medicine in India before emigrating to the United States in 1970 where he completed residencies in internal medicine and endocrinology. As a licensed physician, he became chief of staff at the New England Memorial Hospital (NEMH) in 1980.[7] He met Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1985 and became involved with the Transcendental Meditation movement (TM). He resigned his position at NEMH shortly thereafter to establish the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Center.[8] Chopra gained a following in 1993 after he was interviewed on The Oprah Winfrey Show about his books.[9] He then left the TM movement to become the executive director of Sharp HealthCare‘s Center for Mind-Body Medicine and in 1996 he co-founded the Chopra Center for Wellbeing.[7][8][10]

Chopra believes that a person may attain “perfect health”, a condition “that is free from disease, that never feels pain”, and “that cannot age or die”.[11][12] Seeing the human body as being undergirded by a “quantum mechanical body” composed not of matter but of energy and information, he believes that “human aging is fluid and changeable; it can speed up, slow down, stop for a time, and even reverse itself,” as determined by one’s state of mind.[11][13] He claims that his practices can also treat chronic disease.[14][15] As of 2014, Deepak Chopra lived in a “health-centric” condominium in Manhattan.[16]

The ideas Chopra promotes have been regularly criticized by medical and scientific professionals as pseudoscience.[17][18][19][20] This criticism has been described as ranging “from dismissive [to] damning”.[17] For example, Robert Carroll states Chopra attempts to integrate Ayurveda with quantum mechanics to justify his teachings.[21] Chopra argues that what he calls “quantum healing” cures any manner of ailments, including cancer, through effects that he claims are literally based on the same principles as quantum mechanics.[15] This has led physicists to object to his use of the term quantum in reference to medical conditions and the human body.[15] His treatments generally elicit nothing but a placebo response,[6] and have drawn criticism that the unwarranted claims made for them may raise “false hope” and lure sick people away from legitimate medical treatments.[17] He is placed by David Gorski among the “quacks”, “cranks” and “purveyors of woo”, and described as “arrogantly obstinate”.[22] Richard Dawkins has said that Chopra uses “quantum jargon as plausible-sounding hocus pocus“.[23]


Early life and education[edit]

Chopra was born in New Delhi, India,[24] to Krishan Lal Chopra (1919–2001) and Pushpa Chopra.[25]

His paternal grandfather was a sergeant in the British Indian Army. His father was a prominent cardiologist, head of the department of medicine and cardiology at New Delhi’s Moolchand Khairati Ram Hospital for over 25 years; he was also a lieutenant in the British army, serving as an army doctor at the front at Burma and acting as a medical adviser to Lord Mountbatten, viceroy of India.[26] As of 2014 Chopra’s younger brother, Sanjiv Chopra, is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and on staff at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.[27]

Chopra completed his primary education at St. Columba’s School in New Delhi and graduated from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in 1969.[citation needed][28] He spent his first months as a doctor working in rural India, including, he writes, six months in a village where the lights went out whenever it rained.[29] It was during his early career that he was drawn to study endocrinology, particularly neuroendocrinology, to find a biological basis for the influence of thoughts and emotions.[30]

He married in India in 1970 before emigrating with his wife that year to the United States.[9] The Indian government had banned its doctors from sitting the American Medical Association exam needed to practice in the USA, so Chopra had to travel to Sri Lanka to take it. After passing he arrived in the United States to take up a clinical internship at Muhlenberg Hospital in Plainfield, New Jersey, where doctors from overseas were being recruited to replace those serving in Vietnam.[31]

Between 1971 and 1977 he completed residencies in internal medicine at the Lahey Clinic in Burlington, Massachusetts, the VA Medical CenterSt Elizabeth’s Medical Center and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.[32] He earned his license to practice medicine in the state of Massachusetts in 1973, becoming board certified in internal medicine, specializing in endocrinology.[33]

East Coast years[edit]

Chopra taught at the medical schools of Tufts UniversityBoston University and Harvard University,[34][35][36] and became Chief of Staff at the New England Memorial Hospital (NEMH) (later known as the Boston Regional Medical Center) in Stoneham, Massachusetts, before establishing a private practice in Boston in endocrinology.[37]

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was an influence on Chopra in the 1980s.

While visiting New Delhi in 1981, he met the physician Brihaspati Dev Triguna, head of the Indian Council for Ayurvedic Medicine, whose advice prompted him to begin investigating Ayurvedic practices.[38] Chopra was “drinking black coffee by the hour and smoking at least a pack of cigarettes a day”.[39] He took up Transcendental Meditation to help him stop; as of 2006 he continued to meditate for two hours every morning and half an hour in the evening.[40]

Chopra’s involvement with TM led to a meeting, in 1985, with the leader of the TM movement, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who asked him to establish an Ayurvedic health center.[8][41] He left his position at the NEMH. Chopra said that one of the reasons he left was his disenchantment at having to prescribe too many drugs: “[W]hen all you do is prescribe medication, you start to feel like a legalized drug pusher. That doesn’t mean that all prescriptions are useless, but it is true that 80 percent of all drugs prescribed today are of optional or marginal benefit.”[42]

He became the founding president of the American Association of Ayurvedic Medicine, one of the founders of Maharishi Ayur-Veda Products International, and medical director of the Maharishi Ayur-Veda Health Center in Lancaster, Massachusetts. The center charged between $2,850 and $3,950 a week for Ayurvedic cleansing rituals such as massages, enemas and oil baths; TM lessons cost an additional $1,000. Celebrity patients included Elizabeth Taylor.[43]Chopra also became one of the TM movement’s spokespersons. In 1989 the Maharishi awarded him the title “Dhanvantari of Heaven and Earth” (Dhanvantari is the Hindu physician to the gods).[44] That year Chopra’s Quantum Healing: Exploring the Frontiers of Mind/Body Medicine was published, followed by Perfect Health: The Complete Mind/Body Guide (1990).[7]

West Coast years[edit]

In June 1993, he moved to California as executive director of Sharp HealthCare‘s Institute for Human Potential and Mind/Body Medicine, and head of their Center for Mind/Body Medicine, a clinic in an exclusive resort in Del Mar, California that charged $4,000 a week and included Michael Jackson‘s family among its clients.[45] Chopra and Jackson first met in 1988 and remained friends for 20 years. When Jackson died in 2009 after being administered prescription drugs, Chopra said he hoped it would be a call to action against the “cult of drug-pushing doctors, with their co-dependent relationships with addicted celebrities”.[46][47]

Chopra left the Transcendental Meditation movement around the time he moved to California in January 1993.[48] Mahesh Yogi claimed that Chopra had competed for the Maharishi’s position as guru,[49] although Chopra rejected this.[50] According to Robert Todd Carroll, Chopra left the TM organization when it “became too stressful” and was a “hindrance to his success”.[51] Cynthia Ann Humes writes that the Maharishi was concerned, and not only with regard to Chopra, that rival systems were being taught at lower prices.[52] Chopra, for his part, was worried that his close association with the TM movement might prevent Ayurvedic medicine from being accepted as legitimate, particularly after the problems with the JAMA article.[53] He also stated that he had become uncomfortable with what seemed like a “cultish atmosphere around Maharishi”.[54]

In 1995, Chopra was not licensed to practice medicine in California where he had a clinic; however, he did not see patients at this clinic “as a doctor” during this time.[55] In 2004 he received his California medical licence, and as of 2014 is affiliated with Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla, California.[56][57][58] Chopra is the owner and supervisor of the Mind-Body Medical Group within the Chopra Center, which in addition to standard medical treatment offers personalized advice about nutrition, sleep-wake cycles and stress management, based on mainstream medicine and Ayurveda.[59] He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and member of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.[60]

Alternative medicine business[edit]

Chopra’s Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old was published in 1993.[7] The book and his friendship with Michael Jackson gained him an interview on July 12 that year on OprahPaul Offit writes that within 24 hours Chopra had sold 137,000 copies of his book and 400,000 by the end of the week.[61] Four days after the interview, the Maharishi National Council of the Age of Enlightenment wrote to TM centers in the United States, instructing them not to promote Chopra, and his name and books were removed from the movement’s literature and health centers.[62] Neuroscientist Tony Nader became the movement’s new “Dhanvantari of Heaven and Earth”.[63]

Sharp HealthCare changed ownership in 1996 and Chopra left to set up the Chopra Center for Wellbeing with neurologist David Simon, now located at the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa in Carlsbad, California.[64] In his 2013 book, Do You Believe in Magic?Paul Offit writes that Chopra’s business grosses approximately $20 million annually, and is built on the sale of various alternative medicine products such as herbal supplements, massage oils, books, videos and courses. A year’s worth of products for “anti-ageing” can cost up to $10,000, Offit wrote.[65] Chopra himself is estimated to be worth over $80 million as of 2014.[66] As of 2005, according to Srinivas Aravamudan, he was able to charge $25,000 to $30,000 per lecture five or six times a month.[67]Medical anthropologist Hans Baer said Chopra was an example of a successful entrepreneur, but that he focused too much on serving the upper-class through an alternative to medical hegemony, rather than a truly holistic approach to health.[11]

Teaching and other roles[edit]

Chopra serves as an adjunct professor in the marketing division at Columbia Business School.[68] He serves as adjunct professor of executive programs at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.[69] He participates annually as a lecturer at the Update in Internal Medicine event sponsored by Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.[70]Robert Carroll writes of Chopra charging $25,000 per lecture, “giving spiritual advice while warning against the ill effects of materialism”.[71]

In 2015, Chopra partnered with businessman Paul Tudor Jones II to found JUST Capital, a non-profit which ranks companies in terms of just business practices in an effort to promote economic justice.[72] In 2014, Chopra founded ISHAR (Integrative Studies Historical Archive and Repository).[73] In 2012, Chopra joined the board of advisors for tech startup, creating a browsable network of structured opinions.[74] In 2009, Chopra founded the Chopra Foundation, a tax-exempt 501(c) organization that raises funds to promote and research alternative health.[75] The Foundation sponsors annual Sages and Scientists conferences.[76] He sits on the board of advisors of the National Ayurvedic Medical Association, an organization based in the United States.[77]Chopra founded the American Association for Ayurvedic Medicine (AAAM) and Maharishi AyurVeda Products International, though he later distanced himself from these organizations.[78] In 2005, Chopra was appointed as a senior scientist at The Gallup Organization.[79] Since 2004, he has been a board member of Men’s Wearhouse, a men’s clothing distributor.[80] In 2006 he launched Virgin Comics with his son Gotham Chopra and entrepreneur Richard Branson.[81] In 2016, Chopra was promoted from voluntary assistant clinical professor to voluntary full clinical professor at the University of California, San Diego in their Department of Family Medicine and Public Health.[82]

Personal life[edit]

Chopra and his wife have two adult children and three grandchildren as of 2013.[5] He lives in a $14.5 million “health-centric” condominium in Manhattan.[16]

Ideas and reception[edit]

Chopra believes that a person may attain “perfect health”, a condition “that is free from disease, that never feels pain”, and “that cannot age or die”.[11][12] Seeing the human body as being undergirded by a “quantum mechanical body” comprised not of matter but of energy and information, he believes that “human aging is fluid and changeable; it can speed up, slow down, stop for a time, and even reverse itself,” as determined by one’s state of mind.[11][13] He claims that his practices can also treat chronic disease.[14][15]


Chopra speaks and writes regularly about metaphysics, including the study of consciousness and Vedanta philosophy. He is a philosophical idealist, arguing for the primacy of consciousness over matter and for teleology and intelligence in nature – that mind, or “dynamically active consciousness”, is a fundamental feature of the universe.[83]

In this view, consciousness is both subject and object.[84] It is consciousness, he writes, that creates reality; we are not “physical machines that have somehow learned to think…[but] thoughts that have learned to create a physical machine”.[85] He argues that the evolution of species is the evolution of consciousness seeking to express itself as multiple observers; the universe experiences itself through our brains: “We are the eyes of the universe looking at itself”.[86] He has been quoted as saying “Charles Darwin was wrong. Consciousness is key to evolution and we will soon prove that.”[87] He opposes reductionist thinking in science and medicine, arguing that we can trace the physical structure of the body down to the molecular level and still have no explanation for beliefs, desires, memory and creativity.[88] In his book Quantum Healing, Chopra stated the conclusion that quantum entanglement links everything in the Universe, and therefore it must create consciousness.[89]

Approach to health care [edit]

Deepak Chopra at a book signing in 2006

Chopra argues that everything that happens in the mind and brain is physically represented elsewhere in the body, with mental states (thoughts, feelings, perceptions and memories) directly influencing physiology by means of neurotransmitters such as dopamineoxytocin and serotonin. He has stated, “Your mind, your body and your consciousness – which is your spirit – and your social interactions, your personal relationships, your environment, how you deal with the environment, and your biology are all inextricably woven into a single process … By influencing one, you influence everything.”[90]

Chopra and physicians at the Chopra Center practise integrative medicine, combining the medical model of conventional Western medicine with alternative therapies such as yoga, mindfulness meditation, and Ayurveda.[91][92] According to Ayurveda, illness is caused by an imbalance in the patient’s doshas or humours, and is treated with diet, exercise and meditative practices[93] – based on the medical evidence there is, however, nothing in Ayurvedic medicine that is known to be effective at treating disease, and some preparations may be actively harmful, although meditation may be useful in promoting general wellbeing.[94]

In discussing health care, Chopra has used the term “quantum healing”, which he defined in Quantum Healing (1989) as the “ability of one mode of consciousness (the mind) to spontaneously correct the mistakes in another mode of consciousness (the body)”.[95] This attempted to wed the Maharishi’s version of Ayurvedic medicine with concepts from physics, an example of what cultural historian Kenneth Zysk called “New Age Ayurveda”.[96] The book introduced Chopra’s view that a person’s thoughts and feelings give rise to all cellular processes.[97]

Chopra coined the term quantum healing to invoke the idea of a process whereby a person’s health “imbalance” is corrected by quantum mechanical means. Chopra said that quantum phenomena are responsible for health and wellbeing. He has attempted to integrate Ayurveda, a traditional Indian system of medicine, with quantum mechanics, in order to justify his teachings. According to Robert Carroll, he “charges $25,000 per lecture performance, where he spouts a few platitudes and gives spiritual advice while warning against the ill effects of materialism”.[21]

Chopra has equated spontaneous remission in cancer to a change in quantum state, corresponding to a jump to “a new level of consciousness that prohibits the existence of cancer”. Physics professor Robert L. Park has written that physicists “wince” at the “New Age quackery” in Chopra’s cancer theories, and characterizes them as a cruel fiction, since adopting them in place of effective treatment risks compounding the ill effects of the disease with guilt, and might rule out the prospect of getting a genuine cure.[15]

Chopra’s claims of quantum healing have attracted controversy due to what has been described as a “systematic misinterpretation” of modern physics.[98] Chopra’s connections between quantum mechanics and alternative medicine are widely regarded in the scientific community as being invalid. The main criticism revolves around the fact that macroscopic objects are too large to exhibit inherently quantum properties like interference and wave function collapse. Most literature on quantum healing is almost entirely theosophical, omitting the rigorous mathematics that makes quantum electrodynamics possible.[99]

Physicists have objected to Chopra’s use of terms from quantum physics; he was awarded the satirical Ig Nobel Prize in physics in 1998 for “his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness”.[100] When Chopra and Jean Houston debated Sam Harris and Michael Shermer in 2010 on the question “Does God Have a Future?”, Harris argued that Chopra’s use of “spooky physics” merged two language games in a “completely unprincipled way”.[18] Interviewed in 2007 by Richard Dawkins, Chopra said that he used the term quantum as a metaphor when discussing healing and that it had little to do with quantum theory in physics.[101]

Chopra wrote in 2000 that his AIDS patients were combining mainstream medicine with activities based on Ayurveda, including taking herbs, meditation and yoga.[102] He acknowledges that AIDS is caused by the HIV virus, but says that, “‘[h]earing’ the virus in its vicinity, the DNA mistakes it for a friendly or compatible sound”. Ayurveda uses vibrations which are said to correct this supposed sound distortion.[103] Medical professor Lawrence Schneiderman writes that Chopra’s treatment has “to put it mildly…no supporting empirical data”.[104]

In 2001, ABC News aired a show segment on the topic of distance healing and prayer.[105] In it Chopra said that “there is a realm of reality that goes beyond the physical where in fact we can influence each other from a distance”.[105] Chopra was shown using his claimed mental powers in an attempt to relax a person in another room, whose vital signs were recorded in charts which were said to show a correspondence between Chopra’s periods of concentration and the subject’s periods of relaxation.[105] After the show, a poll of its viewers found that 90% of them believed in distance healing.[106] Health and science journalist Christopher Wanjek has criticized the experiment, saying that any correspondence evident from the charts would prove nothing, but that even so freezing the frame of the video showed the correspondences were not so close as claimed. Wanjek characterized the broadcast as “an instructive example of how bad medicine is presented as exciting news” which had “a dependence on unusual or sensational science results that others in the scientific community renounce as unsound”.[105]

Alternative medicine[edit]

Chopra has been described as “America’s most prominent spokesman for Ayurveda”.[78] His treatments benefit from the placebo response.[6] Chopra states “The placebo effect is real medicine, because it triggers the body’s healing system.”[107] Physician and former U.S. Air Force flight surgeon Harriet Hall has criticised Chopra for his promotion of Ayurveda, stating that “it can be dangerous”, referring to studies showing that 64% of Ayurvedic remedies sold in India are contaminated with significant amounts of heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, and cadmium and a 2015 study of users in the United States who found elevated blood lead levels in 40% of those tested.”[108]

Chopra has metaphorically described the AIDS virus as emitting “a sound that lures the DNA to its destruction”. The condition can be treated, according to Chopra, with “Ayurveda’s primordial sound”.[14] Taking issue with this view, medical professor Lawrence Schneiderman has said that ethical issues are raised when alternative medicine is not based on empirical evidence and that, “to put it mildly, Dr. Chopra proposes a treatment and prevention program for AIDS that has no supporting empirical data”.[14]

He is placed by David Gorski among the “quacks”, “cranks” and “purveyors of woo”, and described as “arrogantly obstinate”.[22] The New York Times in 2013 stated that Deepak Chopra is “the controversial New Age guru and booster of alternative medicine”.[5] Time magazine stated that he is “the poet-prophet of alternative medicine.”[109] He has become one of the best-known and wealthiest figures in the holistic-health movement.[6] The New York Times argued that his publishers have used his medical degree on the covers of his books as a way to promote the books and buttress their claims.[55] In 1999 Time magazine included Chopra in its list of the 20th century’s heroes and icons.[110] Cosmo Landesman wrote in 2005 that Chopra was “hardly a man now, more a lucrative new age brand – the David Beckham of personal/spiritual growth”.[111] For Timothy Caulfield, Chopra is an example of someone using scientific language to promote treatments that are not grounded in science: “[Chopra] legitimizes these ideas that have no scientific basis at all, and makes them sound scientific. He really is a fountain of meaningless jargon.”[112] A 2008 Timemagazine article by Ptolemy Tompkins commented that for most of his career Chopra had been a “magnet for criticism”, and most of it was from the medical and scientific professionals.[17]Opinions ranged from the “dismissive” to the “outright damning”.[17] Chopra’s claims for the effectiveness of alternative medicine can, some have argued, lure sick people away from medical treatment.[17] Tompkins however considered Chopra a “beloved” individual whose basic messages centered on “love, health and happiness” had made him rich because of their popular appeal.[17]English professor George O’Har argues that Chopra exemplifies the need of human beings for meaning and spirit in their lives, and places what he calls Chopra’s “sophistries” alongside the emotivism of Oprah Winfrey.[113] Paul Kurtz writes that Chopra’s “regnant spirituality” is reinforced by postmodern criticism of the notion of objectivity in science, while Wendy Kaminer equates Chopra’s views with irrational belief systems such as New ThoughtChristian Science, and Scientology.[114]


Chopra believes that “ageing is simply learned behaviour” that can be slowed or prevented.[115] Chopra has said that he expects “to live way beyond 100”.[116] He states that “by consciously using our awareness, we can influence the way we age biologically…You can tell your body not to age.”[117] Conversely, Chopra also says that ageing can be accelerated, for example by a person engaging in “cynical mistrust”.[118]

Robert Todd Carroll has characterized Chopra’s promotion of lengthened life as a selling of “hope” that seems to be “a false hope based on an unscientific imagination steeped in mysticism and cheerily dispensed gibberish”.[21]

Spirituality and religion[edit]

Chopra has likened the universe to a “reality sandwich” which has three layers: the “material” world, a “quantum” zone of matter and energy, and a “virtual” zone outside of time and space, which is the domain of God, and from which God can direct the other layers. Chopra has written that human beings’ brains are “hardwired to know God” and that the functions of the human nervous systemmirror divine experience.[119] Chopra has written that his thinking has been inspired by Jiddu Krishnamurti, a 20th-century speaker and writer on philosophical and spiritual subjects.[120]

In 2012, reviewing War of the Worldviews – a book co-authored by Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow – physics professor Mark Alford says that the work is set out as a debate between the two authors, “[covering] all the big questions: cosmology, life and evolution, the mind and brain, and God”. Alford considers the two sides of the debate a false opposition, and says that “the counterpoint to Chopra’s speculations is not science, with its complicated structure of facts, theories, and hypotheses,” but rather Occam’s razor.[121]

In August 2005, Chopra wrote a series of articles on the creation-evolution controversy and Intelligent design, which were criticized by science writer Michael Shermer, founder of The Skeptics Society.[122][123][124] In 2010, Shermer said that Chopra is “the very definition of what we mean by pseudoscience”.[18]

Position on skepticism[edit]

Paul Kurtz, an American skeptic and secular humanist, has written that the popularity of Chopra’s views is associated with increasing anti-scientific attitudes in society, and such popularity represents an assault on the objectivity of science itself by seeking new, alternative forms of validation for ideas. Kurtz says that medical claims must always be submitted to open-minded but proper scrutiny, and that skepticism “has its work cut out for it”.[125]

In 2013, Chopra published an article on what he saw as “skepticism” at work in Wikipedia, arguing that a “stubborn band of militant skeptics” were editing articles to prevent what he believes would be a fair representation of the views of such figures as Rupert Sheldrake, an author, lecturer, and researcher in parapsychology. The result, Chopra argued, was that the encyclopedia’s readers were denied the opportunity to read of attempts to “expand science beyond its conventional boundaries”.[126] The biologist Jerry Coyne responded, saying that it was instead Chopra who was losing out as his views were being “exposed as a lot of scientifically-sounding psychobabble“.[126]

More broadly, Chopra has attacked skepticism as a whole, writing in The Huffington Post that “No skeptic, to my knowledge, ever made a major scientific discovery or advanced the welfare of others.”[127] Astronomer Phil Plait said this statement trembled “on the very edge of being a blatant and gross lie”, listing Carl SaganRichard FeynmanStephen Jay Gould, and Edward Jenneramong the “thousands of scientists [who] are skeptics”, who he said were counterexamples to Chopra’s statement.[128]

Misuse of scientific terminology[edit]

Reviewing Susan Jacoby‘s book, The Age of American UnreasonWendy Kaminer sees Chopra’s popular reception in the USA as being symptomatic of many Americans’ historical inability (as Jacoby puts it) “to distinguish between real scientists and those who peddled theories in the guise of science”. Chopra’s “nonsensical references to quantum physics” are placed in a lineage of American religious pseudoscience, extending back through Scientology to Christian Science.[19] Physics professor Chad Orzel has written that “to a physicist, Chopra’s babble about ‘energy fields’ and ‘congealing quantum soup’ presents as utter gibberish”, but that Chopra makes enough references to technical terminology to convince non-scientists that he understands physics.[129] English professor George O’Har writes that Chopra is as an exemplification of the fact that human beings need “magic” in their lives, and places “the sophistries of Chopra” alongside the emotivism of Oprah Winfrey, the special effects and logic of Star Trek, and the magic of Harry Potter.[130]

Chopra has been criticized for his frequent references to the relationship of quantum mechanics to healing processes, a connection that has drawn skepticism from physicists who say it can be considered as contributing to the general confusion in the popular press regarding quantum measurementdecoherence and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.[131] In 1998, Chopra was awarded the satirical Ig Nobel Prize in physics for “his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness”.[132] When interviewed by ethologist and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in the Channel 4 (UK) documentary The Enemies of Reason, Chopra said that he used the term “quantum physics” as “a metaphor” and that it had little to do with quantum theory in physics.[133] In March 2010, Chopra and Jean Houston debated Sam Harris and Michael Shermer at the California Institute of Technology on the question “Does God Have a Future?” Shermer and Harris criticized Chopra’s use of scientific terminology to expound unrelated spiritual concepts.[18]

A 2015 paper examining “the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bullshit” used Chopra’s Twitter feed as the canonical example, and compared this with fake Chopra quotes generated by a spoof website.[20][134][135]


In April 2010 Aseem Shukla, co-founder of the Hindu American Foundation, criticized Chopra for suggesting that yoga did not have its origins in Hinduism but in an older Indian spiritual tradition.[136] Chopra later said that yoga was rooted in “consciousness alone” expounded by Vedic rishis long before historic Hinduism ever arose. He said that Shukla had a “fundamentalist agenda”. Shukla responded by saying Chopra was an exponent of the art of “How to Deconstruct, Repackage and Sell Hindu Philosophy Without Calling it Hindu!”, and he said Chopra’s mentioning of fundamentalism was an attempt to divert the debate.[137][138]

Legal actions[edit]

In May 1991, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published an article by Chopra and two others on Ayurvedic medicine and TM.[139] JAMA subsequently published an erratum stating that the lead author, Hari M. Sharma, had undisclosed financial interests, followed by an article by JAMA associate editor Andrew A. Skolnick which was highly critical of Chopra and the other authors for failing to disclose their financial connections to the article subject.[140] Several experts on meditation and traditional Indian medicine criticized JAMA for accepting the “shoddy science” of the original article.[141] Chopra and two TM groups sued Skolnick and JAMA for defamation, asking for $194 million in damages, but the case was dismissed in March 1993.[142]

Chopra was sued for copyright infringement by Robert Sapolsky, for using a chart displaying information on the endocrinology of stress without proper attribution, after the publication of Chopra’s book Ageless Body, Timeless Mind.[143] “An out-of-court settlement” resulted in Chopra correctly attributing material that was researched by Sapolsky.[144]

Select bibliography[edit]

As of 2015, Chopra has written 80 books, 21 of them New York Times bestsellers, which have been translated into 43 languages.[145] His book The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success was on The New York Times Best Seller list[146] for 72 weeks.[147]


See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra; Sanjiv Chopra (2013). Brotherhood: Dharma, Destiny, and the American Dream. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 5–. ISBN 0-544-03210-1. Retrieved April 25,2016.
  2. Jump up^ Jeffrey Brown (May 13, 2013). “Chopra Brothers Tell Story of How They Became Americans and Doctors in Memoir”PBS News Hour. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
    Deepak Chopra; Sanjiv Chopra (2013). Brotherhood: Dharma, Destiny, and the American Dream. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 194. ISBN 0-544-03210-1. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
    Boye Lafayette De Mente (January 1, 1976). Cultural Failures That Are Destroying the American Dream! – The Destructive Influence of Male Dominance & Religious Dogma!. Cultural-Insight Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-914778-17-2.
  3. Jump up^ Alter, Charlotte (November 26, 2014). “Deepak Chopra on Why Gratitude is Good For You”Time. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  4. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra”The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25,2016.
  5. Jump up to:a b c Chopra 1991, pp. 54–57; Joanne Kaufman, “Deepak Chopra – An ‘Inner Stillness,’ Even on the Subway,” The New York Times, October 17, 2013.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d Gamel JW (2008). “Hokum on the Rise: The 70-Percent Solution”The Antioch Review66 (1): 130. It seems appropriate that Chopra and legions of his ilk should now populate the halls of academic medicine, since they carry on the placebo-dominated traditions long ago established in those very halls by their progenitors
  7. Jump up to:a b c d Perry, Tony (September 7, 1997). “So Rich, So Restless”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10,2013.
  8. Jump up to:a b c Baer 2003, p. 237.
  9. Jump up to:a b Dunkel, Tom (2005). “Inner Peacekeeper”The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  10. Jump up^ David Steele (September 11, 2012). The Million Dollar Private Practice: Using Your Expertise to Build a Business That Makes a Difference. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-1-118-22081-8.
  11. Jump up to:a b c d e Baer, HA (June 2003). “The work of Andrew Weil and Deepak Chopra—two holistic health/New Age gurus: a critique of the holistic health/New Age movements”. Medical anthropology quarterly17 (2): 240–241. doi:10.1525/maq.2003.17.2.233JSTOR 3655336PMID 12846118.
  12. Jump up to:a b Chopra, Deepak (December 2007). Perfect Health—Revised and Updated: The Complete Mind Body Guide. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. p. 7.
  13. Jump up to:a b Chopra, Deepak (1997). Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old. Random House. p. 6.
  14. Jump up to:a b c d Schneiderman, LJ (2003). “The (alternative) medicalization of life”. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics31(2): 191–7. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2003.tb00080.xPMID 12964263.
  15. Jump up to:a b c d e Park, Robert L (September 1, 2005). “Chapter 9: Voodoo medicine in a scientific world”. In Ashman, Keith; Barringer, Phillip. After the Science Wars: Science and the Study of Science. Routledge. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-1-134-61618-3.
  16. Jump up to:a b Zoe Rosenberg (February 26, 2014). “Deepak Chopra Drops $14.5M on Health-Centric Delos Condo”. Vox Media. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  17. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Tompkins, Ptolemy (November 14, 2008). “New Age Supersage”Time. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Ever since his early days as an advocate of alternative healing and nutrition, Chopra has been a magnet for criticism—most of it from the medical and scientific communities. Accusations have ranged from the dismissive—Chopra is just another huckster purveying watered-down Eastern wisdom mixed with pseudo science and pop psychology—to the outright damning.
  18. Jump up to:a b c d “Face-Off: Does God Have a Future”Nightline. Season 30. Episode 58. Transcript from the Internet Archive. March 23, 2010. ABC. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  19. Jump up to:a b Kaminer, Wendy (2008). “The Corrosion of the American Mind (reviewing The Age of American Unreason by Susan Jacoby)”. The Wilson Quarterly32 (2): 92. JSTOR 40262377Then came Scientology, the “science” of positive thinking, and, more recently, New Age healer Deepak Chopra’s nonsensical references to quantum physics
  20. Jump up to:a b “Scientists find a link between low intelligence and acceptance of ‘pseudo-profound bulls***The Independent. December 4, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  21. Jump up to:a b c Carroll, Robert Todd (May 19, 2013), “Deepak Chopra”The Skeptic’s Dictionary
  22. Jump up to:a b David Gorski. “Deepak Chopra tries his hand at a clinical trial. Woo ensues”. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  23. Jump up^ Chopra, Deepak (June 19, 2013). “Richard Dawkins Plays God: The Video (Updated)” Retrieved October 7, 2017.
  24. Jump up^ Chamberlain, Adrian (October 10, 2015). “Backstage: A lesson in concentration from Deepak Chopra”Times Colonist.
  25. Jump up^ Chopra and Chopra 2013, pp. 5, 161.
  26. Jump up^ Chopra 2013, pp. 5–6, 11–13; Michael Schulder (May 24, 2013). “The Chopra Brothers”. CNN.
  27. Jump up^ “Chopra, Sanjiv, MD” Archived December 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  28. Jump up^ The AIIMSonians alumni site notes he joined AIIMS in 1964. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  29. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, Return of the Rishi, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991, p. 1.
  30. Jump up^ Carl Lindgren (March 31, 2010). “International Dreamer – Deepak Chopra”Map Magazine’s Street Editors. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011.
  31. Jump up^ Chopra 1991, p. 57; Deepak Chopra, “Special Keynote with Dr. Deepak Chopra”, November 2013, from 2:50 mins; Richard Knox, “Foreign doctors: a US dilemma”Boston Globe, June 30, 1974.
  32. Jump up^ “Dr. Deepak K Chopra”U.S. News and World Report.
  33. Jump up^ “Deepak K. Chopra, M.D.”, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine; “Verify a Physician’s Certification” Archived December 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., American Board of Internal Medicine.
  34. Jump up^ Lambert, Craig A. (July 1989). “Quantum Healing: An Interview with Deepak Chopra, M.D.” Yoga Journal (87): 47–53.
  35. Jump up^ Young, Anna M. (2014). Prophets, Gurus, and Pundits: Rhetorical Styles and Public Engagement. SIU Press. pp. 59–68. ISBN 9780809332953OCLC 871781118.
  36. Jump up^ Hill, Maria (2016). The Emerging Sensitive: A Guide for Finding Your Place in the World. BookBaby. ISBN 9781682224755OCLC 953493840.
  37. Jump up^ “Toward an Integrative Medicine” p. 121. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  38. Jump up^ Chopra 1991, p. 105ff.
  39. Jump up^ Chopra 1991, p. 125.
  40. Jump up^ Rosamund Burton (June 4, 2006). “Peace Seeker”Nova Magazine. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013.
  41. Jump up^ Chopra 1991, p. 139ff
  42. Jump up^ Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, “The Crisis of Perception”Media Monitors Network, February 29, 2008.
  43. Jump up^ Elise Pettus, “The Mind–Body Problems,” New York, August 14, 1995, (pp. 28–3195), p. 30. Also see Deepak Chopra, “Letters: Deepak responds,” New York Magazine, September 25, 1995, p. 16.
  44. Jump up^ Cynthia Ann Humes, “Schisms within Hindu guru groups: the Transcendental Meditation movement in North America,” in James R. Lewis, Sarah M. Lewis (eds.), Sacred Schisms: How Religions Divide, Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 297. Also see Cynthia Ann Humes, “Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Beyond the TM Technique,” in Thomas A. Forsthoefel, Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.), Gurus in America, State University of New York Press, 2005, pp. 68–69.
  45. Jump up^ Pettus (New York Magazine) 1995, p. 31.
  46. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, “A Tribute to My Friend, Michael Jackson”.
  47. Jump up^ The Huffington Post, June 26, 2009; Gerald Posner, “Deepak Chopra: How Michael Jackson Could Have Been Saved”The Daily Beast, July 2, 2009, p. 4.
  48. Jump up^ Pettus (New York Magazine) 1995, p. 31; Baer 2004, p. 129.
  49. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, “The Maharishi Years – The Untold Story: Recollections of a Former Disciple”The Huffington Post, February 13, 2008.
  50. Jump up^ Nilanjana Bhaduri Jha (June 22, 2004). Employee loyalty comes first, the rest will follow’ – Economic Times”The Times of India. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  51. Jump up^ Carroll, Robert Todd (January 11, 2011). The Skeptic’s Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. John Wiley & Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-118-04563-3.
  52. Jump up^ Humes 2005, p. 69; Humes 2009, pp. 299, 302.
  53. Jump up^ Cynthia Ann Humes, “Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Perfect Health through Enlightened Marketing in America,” in Frederick M. Smith, Dagmar Wujastyk (eds.), Modern and Global Ayurveda: Pluralism and Paradigms, State University of New York Press, 2008, p. 324.
  54. Jump up^ Hoffman, Claire (February 22, 2013). “David Lynch Is Back … as a Guru of Transcendental Meditation”The New York Times.
  55. Jump up to:a b LLC, New York Media, (August 14, 1995). New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. pp. 95–. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  56. Jump up^ “Chopra, Deepak”, California Department of Consumer Affairs. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  57. Jump up^ “Dr. Deepak K Chopra”U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  58. Jump up^ “Endocrinologists, Scripps La Jolla Hospitals and Clinics”U.S. News & World ReportArchived May 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  59. Jump up^ “Mind–Body Medical Group” Archived May 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Chopra Center; Deepak Chopra, “The Mind–Body Medical Group at the Chopra Center”, The Chopra Well, May 26, 2014.
  60. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra, M.D.”, The Chopra Center.
  61. Jump up^ Paul A. OffitDo You Believe in Magic? The Sense and Nonsense of Alternative Medicine, HarperCollins, 2013, p. 39; “Full Transcript: Your Call with Dr Deepak Chopra”, NDTV, January 23, 2012; also see Craig Bromberg, “Doc of Ages,” People, November 15, 1993.
  62. Jump up^ For the National Council’s letter, Humes 2005, p. 68; Humes 2009, p. 297; for the rest, Pettus (New York Magazine) 1995, p. 31.
  63. Jump up^ Humes 2008, p. 326.
  64. Jump up^ David Ogul (February 9, 2012). “David Simon, 61, mind-body medicine pioneer, opened Chopra Center for Wellbeing”U-T San Diego. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014.
  65. Jump up^ Offit, Paul (2013). Do You Believe in Magic? The Sense and Nonsense of Alternative Medicine. HarperCollins. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-0-06-222296-1.
  66. Jump up^ Rowe 2014, Truly, madly, deeply Deepak Chopra.
  67. Jump up^ Srinivas AravamudanGuru English: South Asian Religion in a Cosmopolitan Language, Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 257.
  68. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra | Columbia Business School Directory”. Columbia Business School, Columbia University in the City of New York. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  69. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra – Faculty – Kellogg School of Management”. Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  70. Jump up^ “Update in Internal Medicine” Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  71. Jump up^ Robert Todd Carroll (2011). “Auyrvedic medicine”. The Skeptic’s Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-118-04563-3.
  72. Jump up^ Stanley, Alessandra. “A Plan to Rank ‘Just’ Companies Aims to Close the Wealth Gap”The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  73. Jump up^ Maureen Seaberg. “Let’s Raise ISHAR!”The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  74. Jump up^ “”. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  75. Jump up^ Jane Kelly (October 9, 2013). “Chopra and Huffington to Hold a Public Meditation on the Lawn Oct. 15”. UVAToday.
  76. Jump up^ Anne Cukier (January 22, 2014). “Sages and Scientists Symposium 2014”. Zapaday.
  77. Jump up^ “NAMA’s Board of Advisors”.
  78. Jump up to:a b Butler, J. Thomas (July 1, 2011). Consumer Health: Making Informed Decisions. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-1-4496-7543-1.
  79. Jump up^ “Gallup Senior Scientists”. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  80. Jump up^ Belton, Beth (June 25, 2013). “Men’s Wearhouse fires back at George Zimmer”USA Today. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  81. Jump up^ David Segal, “Deepak Chopra And a New Age Of Comic Books”The Washington Post, March 3, 2007.
  82. Jump up^ Robbins, Gary (March 15, 2016). “UCSD deepens ties with Deepak Chopra”U-T San Diego.
  83. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, “What Is Consciousness & Where Is It?”, discussion with Rudolph TanziMenas Kafatos and Lothar Schäfer, Science and Nonduality Conference, 2013, 08:12 mins.
  84. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, Stuart Hameroff, “The ‘Quantum Soul’: A Scientific Hypothesis,” in Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Franklin Santana Santos (eds.), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship, Springer, 2011 (pp. 79–93), p. 85.
  85. Jump up^ Chopra, Deepak (2009) [1989]. Quantum Healing: Exploring the Frontiers of Mind Body Medicine. Random House. pp. 71–72, 74.
  86. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, “Dangerous Ideas: Deepak Chopra & Richard Dawkins”Archived May 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. University of Puebla, November 9, 2013, 26:23 mins.
  87. Jump up^ “India Today Conclave 2015: Darwin was wrong, says Deepak Chopra”India Today. March 13, 2015.
    As quoted by Steve Newton (April 8, 2015). “Why Does Deepak Chopra Hate Me?”NCSE blog.
    As quoted by Valerie Strauss (May 20, 2015). “Deepak Chopra blasts scientist who criticized his view of evolution. The scientist fires back”The Washington Post (blog).
  88. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra and Leonard MlodinowWar of the Worldviews, Random House, 2011, p. 123.
  89. Jump up^ O’Neill, Ian (May 26, 2011). “Does Quantum Theory Explain Consciousness?”Discovery News. Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  90. Jump up^ Deepak Chopra, “Deepak Chopra Meditation”, courtesy of YouTube, December 10, 2012.
  91. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra and the Chopra Center”. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  92. Jump up^ “Oprah Winfrey & Deepak Chopra Launch All-New Meditation Experience ‘Expanding Your HappinessBroadway World. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  93. Jump up^ For imbalance, see Baer 2004, p. 128; for the rest, Chopra 2009 [1989], pp. 222–224, 234ff.
  94. Jump up^ “Ayurvedic medicine”Cancer Research UKThere is no scientific evidence to prove that Ayurvedic medicine can treat or cure cancer or any other disease.
  95. Jump up^ Chopra 2009 [1989], pp. 15, 241; Deepak Chopra, “Healing wisdom” Archived May 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., The Chopra Center, June 12, 2013.
  96. Jump up^ Suzanne Newcombe, “Ayurvedic Medicine in Britain and the Epistemology of Practicing Medicine in Good Faith,” in Smith and Wujastyk 2008, pp. 263–264; Kenneth Zysk, “New Age Ayurveda or what happens to Indian medicine when it comes to America,” Traditional South Asian Medicine, 6, 2001, pp. 10–26. Also see Francoise Jeannotat, “Maharishi Ayur-veda,” in Smith and Wujastyk 2008, p. 285ff.
  97. Jump up^ John W. Zamarra, “Quantum Healing: Exploring the frontiers of mind/body medicine”New England Journal of Medicine, 321, December 14, 1989.
  98. Jump up^ Cox, Brian (February 20, 2012). “Why Quantum Theory Is So Misunderstood – Speakeasy – WSJ”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  99. Jump up^ Magic’ of Quantum Physics”. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  100. Jump up^ Park 2000, p. 137Victor J. Stenger (2007). “Quantum Quackery”Skeptical Inquirer27 (1): 37.“Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize”Improbable Research. Retrieved December 1,2008.
  101. Jump up^ Richard Dawkins“Interview with Chopra”The Enemies of ReasonChannel 4 (UK), 2007; Deepak Chopra, “Richard Dawkins Plays God: The Video (Updated)”The Huffington Post, June 19, 2013.
  102. Jump up^ Dann Dulin, “The Medicine Man”, interview with Deepak Chopra, A&U magazine, 2000.
  103. Jump up^ Chopra 2009 [1989], pp. 37, 237, 239–241.
  104. Jump up^ Lawrence J. Schneiderman (2003). “The (Alternative) Medicalization of Life”. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics31(2): 192. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2003.tb00080.xPMID 12964263.
  105. Jump up to:a b c d Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad Medicine: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Distance Healing to Vitamin O. Wiley Bad Science Series. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 224-. ISBN 978-0-471-46315-3. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  106. Jump up^ Posner, Gary P (2001). “Hardly a Prayer on ABC’s 20/20 Downtown”Skeptical Inquirer (November/December).
  107. Jump up^ Deepak, Deepak (October 17, 2012). “I Will Not Be Pleased – Your Health and the Nocebo Effect”San Francisco Chronicle.
  108. Jump up^ Hall, Harriet. “Ayurveda: Ancient Superstition, Not Ancient Wisdom”Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  109. Jump up^ Dare, Stephen (March 15, 2016). “Stephen Dare Interviews Deepak Chopra”Metro Jacksonville.
  110. Jump up^ For Time, Peter Rowe, “Truly, madly, deeply Deepak Chopra,” U-T San Diego, May 3, 2014, p. 1 Archived May 27, 2014, at; for Clinton, Public Papers of the presidents of the United States: William J. Clinton, 2000–2001, January 1 to June 26, 2000, Government Printing Office, 2001, p. 508.
  111. Jump up^ Landesman, Cosmo (May 8, 2005). “There’s an easy way to save the world”The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved November 10, 2017. (subscription required)
  112. Jump up^ “Deepak Chopra, Timothy Caulfield end Twitter feud”CBC News. January 26, 2017. Archived from the original on November 14, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  113. Jump up^ George M. O’Har (2000). “Magic in the Machine Age”. Technology and Culture41 (4): 864. doi:10.1353/tech.2000.0174JSTOR 25147641.
  114. Jump up^ Paul Kurtz, Skepticism and Humanism: The New Paradigm, Transaction Publishers, 2001, p. 110Wendy Kaminer(2008). “The Corrosion of the American Mind”. The Wilson Quarterly32 (2): 92. JSTOR 40262377.Kaminer, Wendy. “The Corrosion of the American Mind”Wilson Quarterly. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  115. Jump up^ Henderson, Mark (February 7, 2004). “Junk medicine; The triumph of mumbo jumbo”. The Times (Book review). p. 4.
  116. Jump up^ Francis Wheen (July 6, 2005). How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World: A Short History of Modern Delusions. PublicAffairs. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-0-7867-2352-2.
  117. Jump up^ Stephen Barrett“A Few Thoughts on Ayurvedic Mumbo-Jumbo”. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  118. Jump up^ Moukheiber, Zina (1994). “Lord of immortality”. Forbes (Book review). 153 (8): 132.
  119. Jump up^ Lois Malcolm (2003). “God as best seller: Deepak Chopra, Neal Walsch and New Age theology”. The Christian Century120 (19): 31. commenting on Deepak Chopra (2008). How To Know God. Ebury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4090-2220-6.
  120. Jump up^ Blau, Evelyne (May 1995). Krishnamurti: 100 Years. Stewart, Tabori, & Chang. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-55670-407-9.
  121. Jump up^ Alford, Mark (2012). “Is science the antidote to Deepak Chopra’s spirituality?”Skeptical Inquirer36 (3): 54. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
  122. Jump up^ Chopra, Deepak (August 23, 2005). “Intelligent Design Without the Bible”The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25,2016.
  123. Jump up^ Shermer, Michael (March 28, 2008). “Skyhooks and Cranes: Deepak Chopra, George W. Bush, and Intelligent Design”The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
  124. Jump up^ Chopra, Deepak (August 24, 2005). “Rescuing Intelligent Design – But from Whom?”The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  125. Jump up^ Paul Kurtz (2001). Skepticism and Humanism: The New Paradigm. Transaction Publishers. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4128-3411-7. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  126. Jump up to:a b Coyne, Jerry A (November 8, 2013). “Pseudoscientist Rupert Sheldrake Is Not Being Persecuted, And Is Not Like Galileo”The New Republic.
  127. Jump up^ Chopra, Deepak (November 30, 2009). “The Perils of Skepticism”The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  128. Jump up^ Plait, Phil (December 1, 2009). “Deepak Chopra: redefining ‘wrongDiscover.
  129. Jump up^ Orzel, Chad (October 11, 2013). “Malcolm Gladwell Is Deepak Chopra”ScienceBlogs. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  130. Jump up^ O’Har, George M (2000). “Magic in the Machine Age”. Technology and Culture41 (4): 862–864. doi:10.1353/tech.2000.0174.
  131. Jump up^ Stenger, Victor J (1997). “Quantum Quackery”Skeptical Inquirer21 (1): 37-.
  132. Jump up^ “Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize”Improbable Research. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
  133. Jump up^ “The Enemies of Reason”Channel 4.
  134. Jump up^ “Study Finds People Who Fall For Nonsense Inspirational Quotes Are Less Intelligent”The Huffington Post. December 4, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  135. Jump up^ Pennycook, Gordon; et al. (November 2015). “On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound b……t”Judgment and Decision Making. Pennsylvania: Society for Judgment and Decision Making (SJDM) and the European Association for Decision Making (EADM). 10 (6): 549–563. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  136. Jump up^ Shukla, Aseem. “April 28, 2010”The Washington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  137. Jump up^ Shukla, Aseem. “Dr. Chopra: Honor thy heritage”The Washington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  138. Jump up^ Shukla, Aseem. “On Faith Panelists Blog: Hinduism and Sanatana Dharma: One and the same – Aseem Shukla”The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  139. Jump up^ Hari M. Sharma; B. D. Triguna; Deepak Chopra (May 22, 1991). “Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Modern insights into ancient medicine”Journal of the American Medical Association265(20): 2633–4, 2637. doi:10.1001/jama.265.20.2633PMID 1817464.
  140. Jump up^ “Financial Disclosure”. JAMA266 (6): 798. August 14, 1991. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470060060025.Andrew A. Skolnick (October 2, 1991). “Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru’s marketing scheme promises the world eternal ‘perfect healthJAMA266 (13): 1741–1750. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470130017003PMID 1817475..
  141. Jump up^ Robert Barnett; Cathy Sears (October 11, 1991). “JAMA gets into an Indian herbal jam”. Science254 (5029): 188–189. doi:10.1126/science.1925571JSTOR 2885745PMID 1925571.
  142. Jump up^ Pettus (New York Magazine) 1995, p. 31“Deepak’s Days in Court”The New York Times. August 18, 1996.
  143. Jump up^ Kazak, Don (March 5, 1997). “matDon Kazak, “Book Talk”,Time (March 5, 1997)”. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  144. Jump up^ TNN (April 15, 2001). “The Times of India, Halyeema Sayed, The Mind-Body, April 15, 2001”The Times of India. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  145. Jump up^ Harper Collins author bio.
  146. Jump up^ Presley Noble, Barbara (April 2, 1995). “SPENDING IT: OFF THE SHELF; Habits of Highly Effective Authors”The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
  147. Jump up^ McGee, Micki (August 10, 2005). Self-Help, Inc.: Makeover Culture in American Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-19-988368-4. Retrieved December 15, 2014.